Most quasicrystals can be generated by the cut-and-project method from higher dimensional parent lattices. In doing so they lose the periodic order their parent lattice possess, replaced with aperiodic order, due to the irrationality of the projection. However, perfect periodic order is discovered in the perpendicular space when gluing the cut window boundaries together to form a curved loop. In the case of a 1D quasicrystal projected from a 2D lattice, the irrationally sloped cut region is bounded by two parallel lines. When it is extrinsically curved into a cylinder, a line defect is found on the cylinder. Resolving this geometrical frustration removes the line defect to preserve helical paths on the cylinder. The degree of frustration is determined by the thickness of the cut window or the selected pitch of the helical paths. The frustration can be resolved by applying a shear strain to the cut-region before curving into a cylinder. This demonstrates that resolving the geometrical frustration of a topological change to a cut window can lead to preserved periodic order.

About Klee Irwin

Klee Irwin is an author, researcher and entrepreneur who now dedicates the majority of his time to Quantum Gravity Research (QGR), a non-profit research institute that he founded in 2009. The mission of the organization is to discover the geometric first-principles unification of space, time, matter, energy, information, and consciousness.


As the Director of QGR, Klee manages a dedicated team of mathematicians and physicists in developing emergence theory to replace the current disparate and conflicting physics theories. Since 2009, the team has published numerous papers and journal articles analyzing the fundamentals of physics.

Klee is also the founder and owner of Irwin Naturals, an award-winning global natural supplement company providing alternative health and healing products sold in thousands of retailers across the globe including Whole Foods, Vitamin Shoppe, Costco, RiteAid, WalMart, CVS, GNC and many others. Irwin Naturals is a long time supporter of Vitamin Angels, which aims to provide lifesaving vitamins to mothers and children at risk of malnutrition thereby reducing preventable illness, blindness, and death and creating healthier communities.

Outside of his work in physics, Klee is active in supporting students, scientists, educators, and founders in their aim toward discovering solutions to activate positive change in the world.  He has supported and invested in a wide range of people, causes and companies including, Upworthy, Donors Choose, Moon Express, Mayasil, the X PRIZE Foundation, and Singularity University where he is an Associate Founder.

document preview