Volume 4 Issue 5
International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development (IJTSRD) Volume 5 Issue 6, September-October 2021 Available Online: www.ijtsrd.com e-ISSN: 2456 – 6470 @ IJTSRD | Unique Paper ID – IJTSRD47569 | Volume – 5 | Issue – 6 | Sep-Oct 2021 Page 1038 Bureaucratic Leadership and Corruption in the Cameroon Public Service: The Case of the Police Service in Buea Municipality, SW Region Loh Yai Ngwe Comfort University of Buea, Buea, Cameroon ABSTRACT Changes in the organizational environment of the Cameroon public sector are increasingly complex and competitive; and as the nature, volume, and severity of crimes investigation increases from time to time among street level bureaucrats, efforts to curb this corruption have been tilted towards police leadership (Jones: 2014:6). This study sought to investigate the link between bureaucratic leadership and corruption in the police service in Buea Municipality. Specifically, the study examined the link between the transformational, transactional and laissez-faire leadership styles on corruption in the police service in Buea Municipality. Using a descriptive survey research design, the study adopted and modified Bass and Avolios (2000) Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ, Form 5X). The questionnaires were administered to 197 randomly sampled police officials alongside 5 drivers purposively selected in Buea with whom interviews were conducted. The Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 25 was used and the hypotheses tested using the Spearmans Rho Correlation Coefficient. This study found a very significant, negative and moderate relationship between transformational leadership style and corruption; a significant, positive and moderate relationship between transactional leadership style and corruption and a very significant, positive and strong relationship was established between laissez-faire leadership style and corruption. It was concluded that subordinate police officers greatly acknowledge the practice of the transactional leadership style in administration than the others. The laissez-faire leadership style characterized by much leniency and much discretion greatly results in fraudulent acts and of criminality than the transformational and transactional leadership styles. It was recommended that police bosses should be strict and very observant; institute positive competition and offer intellectual stimulation and appeal to their followers, provide relevant, moral, material and financial means as stated in the text. KEYWORDS: Bureaucratic, Leadership, Corruption, Cameroon and Public Service How to cite this paper: Loh Yai Ngwe Comfort "Bureaucratic Leadership and Corruption in the Cameroon Public Service: The Case of the Police Service in Buea Municipality, SW Region" Published in International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development (ijtsrd), ISSN: 2456-6470, Volume-5 | Issue-6, October 2021, pp.1038-1074, URL: www.ijtsrd.com/papers/ijtsrd47569.pdf Copyright © 2021 by author (s) and International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development Journal. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0) (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0) 1. INTRODUCTION 1.1. Background to the Study Corruption is as old as man and it is a universal problem not restricted to a particular area because it knows no frontier (Odessey, 1999:23). It is a canker warm that easily eats deep to the social and moral fabric of any society. According to (Adebimbe and Adeleke, 2009:10) corruption is an ubiquitous social- political phenomenon which ravages across all levels of the society, whether local, national and international. It exists in varying degrees in the United States, Britain, France, Greece, and in Italy and likewise manifestation differs greatly from country to country. Corruption originated from the Latin Word corrupmpere, which means bribe, mar or destroy”. Much evidence suggests that it has been IJTSRD47569 International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development @ www.ijtsrd.com eISSN: 2456-6470 @ IJTSRD | Unique Paper ID – IJTSRD47569 | Volume – 5 | Issue – 6 | Sep-Oct 2021 Page 1039 around the world from time immemorial, and in recent times, it has occupied a front seat in global discussion (Bechem, 2018:1). The origin of the phenomenon cannot be pinpointed; while some argue that it is traceable to the medieval era while pope was dispensing undue favoritism to his relatives in his appointment of the more competent non-relatives, some argue that it is under the modern capitalist era greed and avarice began. Corruption is a virus that poses a threat to global socio-economic and political advancement, thus, a universal antidote would be most suitable to counteract its propaganda (Aluko, 2002). In this light, numerous international symposiums and conventions have focused on the eradication of corruption across the world through the creation of institutions and the utilization of diverse instruments ranging from the enactment of domestic and international laws, to the endorsement of global cooperation introducing and sanctioning perpetrators of corrupt practices. These include among others, the 1996 organization of American States inter American convention Against Corruption; the 1997 convention on the fight against corruption involving officials of the European communities or officials of members states of European Union (this convention was adopted by the council of the European Union; the 1997 organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Convention on Combating bribery of foreign public officials in International business. Transactions, the 2003 African Union Convention on Preventing and Combating Corruption; the United Nations Convention against corruption (Egbeyong, 2018:23). Historically, it is very clear corruption is not a new phenomenon two thousand years ago, Kautilya, the Prime Minister of an Indian King had already written a book, Arthashastra, discussing it (Tanzi, 1998: 32). Seven centuries ago, Dante placed bribes in the deepest parts of Hall, reflecting the medieval distaste for corrupt behavior. Shakespeare gave corruption a prominent role in some of his plays, and the American constitution made bribery one of two explicitly mentioned crimes which could lead to the impeachment of a U. S President. However, the degree of attestation currently paid to corruption is unprecedented and nothing short of extraordinary. For example, in its end of year editorial on December 31, 1995, the financial times characterized 1995 as the year of corruption (Tanzi, 1998: 32). Historically, several arguments can be advanced that suggest that corruption is simply attracting more attention now than in the past. First, the end of the Cold War has stopped the political hypocrisy that had made the decision makers in some industrial countries ignore political corruption that existed in particular countries such as Zaire. As long as the hatters were in the night political camp, there was a tendency to overlook obvious cases of high level of corruption ((Tanzi, 1998: 32). Also, probably due to lack of adequate information and or reluctance to talk about it by those familiar with these countries, there was a tendency to overlook cases of high-level corruption of centrally planned economy. It is now widely known that centrally –planned economy such as the Soviet Union, or those imitating them through highly regimented economic activities, such as Nicaragua and Tanzania, experienced a great deal of corrupt practices. However, these practices were either ignored or not widely reported at the time. Donor countries also tended to play down this problem in countries which they assisted financially, even in the face of misuse or misappropriation of foreign aid. Conversely, global concerns about corruption have intensified in recent years because of increase evidence that corruption undermines economic development (World Bank, 1997: 12). Also, the opportunities to address corruption have equally increased as new global standards of behavior are emerging, driven partly by changing attitudes towards transnational bribery in industrial countries and partly by heightened awareness in developing countries of the costs of corruption. Since 1994, unprecedented efforts have been made to raise awareness about corruption, its insidious nature and the damaging effects it has on the welfare of entire nations and their peoples (United Nations Anti-Corruption Toolkit, 2004: 11). Hence, there is now increasing recognition in both the public and private sectors that corruption is a serious obstacle to effective governance, economic growth and stability. In view of which, anti-corruption policies and legislation are urgently required at the national and international level. Again, corruption is a phenomenon no country is immune to and it has been a well-known fact for quite some time that the classical view on corruption to concern only less developed countries, does not hold. Even though developing countries do score systematically worse in corruption ratings, more than two thirds of the countries worldwide suffer significantly from corruption including half the G20, and that there is no nation in the world where corruption is not an issue whatsoever combating corruption calls for an international collaboration with all nations understanding their relevance in this process especially as corruption is strongly related to inequality and growth (Heldman, 2017). Corruption does not only distort leaders’ ability to exercise their International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development @ www.ijtsrd.com eISSN: 2456-6470 @ IJTSRD | Unique Paper ID – IJTSRD47569 | Volume – 5 | Issue – 6 | Sep-Oct 2021 Page 1040 administrative prowess in decision-making, it also deters investment, undermines competitiveness and, ultimately, weakens economic growth. Indeed, there is evidence that the social, legal, political and economic aspects of development are all linked, and that corruption in any one sector impedes development in them all. Corruption is presently one of the major challenges facing the human race. The world over, corruption is increasingly being seen as a threat to human existence to the extent that some commentators have called for it to be recognized as a crime against humanity Indeed corruption has been identified as the main obstacle to the realization of good governance, sustainable development and millennium Development Goals. It has monumental effects on the political, economic, social and cultural well-being of societies. In Africa, for instance, the commission for Africa identified corruption as a central concern which negatively affects governance and development on the continent. The grim situation of Africa can be summarized in the words of (Rwekaza et al, 2006:136) who observed that while other regions increased per capital, raised literacy rates and improved health care, per capital, income in Africa was roughly the same in 1990s as it was at independence in 1960s. Africas development has stagnated and declined significantly over the years, with nearly half of the continents population living on less than a dollar a day, thus representing 30 percent of the worlds poorest country in the 1990s and even the first decade of 2000. Africa persistently ranks at or near bottom in global comparison of social indicators. This state of affairs is mainly attributable to the culture of impurity, corruption and bad governance. Corruption can further be seen as introduced in Africa through colonialism. This brand of corruption survived the struggle for independence in many African countries and has since been nourished by the weak institutions and leadership in post-colonial Africa. The institutions were later emasculated to enhance concentration of state power in the hands of cabals of politicians thus creating an environment not conducive to participating democracy and the development of an expanded economic role of this state. According to Walligo, the pattern of evolution of corruption in Africa suggest that it has been increasing progressively from one historical epoch to another with an emerging trend of increasing levels of corruption with modernization and civilization in all African countries. It is not disputable that Africa is the poorest continent in the world, and the richest in terms of natural resources. Today the image of this Blessed continent is battered by corruption and leadership corruption has tragically devastated African societies and made millions of people destitute. The tentacles has reached everywhere in the African continent from the offices of presidents and prime ministers to the smallest administrative unit of government, corruption is found everywhere. Crucial to this crisis of corruption engulfing the African continent is the problem of purposeful leadership that could act as architect and engineer of progressive change and development (Ebegbulem, 2012:45). Anyone who has the opportunity to count the number of times African states have been accused of being corrupt in foreign media will lost count. Thus, without any obscurantism, there is no doubt all the changes are true, as there are both domestic and foreign investigation cases in Africa. All these have question the capacity of African leaders to deal with the issue of corruption (Momoh, 2015: 346). Moreover governance in Africa plays significant role in determining the relationship between the leaders and followers in allocating state resources in order to improve the socio economic wellbeing of Africans. It is in this basis that government depends on the citizens to carry out its constitutional functions and provide the needed platform of social engagement between leaders and citizens in addressing socio- economic issues like poverty (Nnoli, 2003:78). However, the issue of poverty in Africa has been linked to at the institutional level. This means that to aid Africa of corruption, efforts must start and be targeted at this level. A country that is plagued with corruption cannot develop its a actors to their fullest potentials; therefore, corruption like transparency and good governance affects all facets of a countrys existence-economy, society and polity, thereby leads to ineffectiveness in leadersip (Momoh, 2013:23). Furthermore, the enormous resources lost to corruption both internally and externally that would have been channeled to address the issue of underdevelopment in Africa have been a great concern to those who sees corruption as a threat to the continent must be addressed. Lastly, the endemic nature of corruption in Africa especially at the institutional levels as question the capacity of African states to deal with the issue of corruption in which huge resources are lost to rather the content level of poverty is on the increase. Corruption is a cankerworm that has invaded the Cameroonian, society. It cut across all sectors in Cameroon, be it public or private sector and, not even the church is free of corruption, it is aged old phenomenon that has plagued the Cameroonian, International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development @ www.ijtsrd.com eISSN: 2456-6470 @ IJTSRD | Unique Paper ID – IJTSRD47569 | Volume – 5 | Issue – 6 | Sep-Oct 2021 Page 1041 society notably in the Health, Educational, and Judicial, financial, military and in the Law and order departments. Cameroon has twice topped the chart of the most corrupt states in the world-1998 and 1999 as per Transparency International indices. Corruption is manifested in several forms including bribery, nepotism, graft, fraud, speed money, theft, pilferage, embezzlement, falsification of records and influence peddling (Bechem, 2018:23). Corruption (Commission or mission) is punishable under section 134 of the penal code of Cameroon. It indicts Any national foreign or international civil servant or public employee, who for himself or for a third party solicits, accepts or receives any offer, promise gift or present in order to perform refrain from performing or postpone any act of his office. Also indicted under this section is anyone who receives a reward as remuneration for having already performed or refrained from performance of an act. The popular notion of a corrupt person suggests that only the receiver is corrupt. However, this is far from the truth as the giver commits no lesser evil. The Cameroonian Penal Code goes as far as punishing the corruptor. It provides that, whoever makes promises, offers, gifts and presents or yields to request liable to result in corruption in order to obtain the performance, postponement or abstention from an act or one of the favors or benefits shall be punished in a like manner as under section (134C1) above whether corruption produced its effects or not other sections of the Penal Code punishing corruption in the public service (indulgence), (under demand) (compulsion of public servant), (procuring influence), (corruption of employee), and misappropriation of public fund (Cameroon Penal Code), or (Eybeyong, 2018:6). The classification of Cameroon as the most corruption nation in the world in 1998 and 1999 made the government more, willing than ever to fight the ill. The Slogan corruption, kills the nation was adopted by the government in its fight against corruption. The national newspaper Cameroon, tribune had a column devoted every day to corruption. The aim of this campaign was to educate Cameroonians on the ills of corruption and the potential damage it could do to the nation if it persisted (Bechem, 2018:4). The advent of the 21st century brought about changes in the fight against corruption which was until them predominantly handled by local courts. Several institutions were created to combat this crime in Cameroon. The very first of these was the National Anti-corruption observatory created in 2000 following pressure mounted on the Cameroonian government by the US State department, the Bretton Woods Institution and Transparency International lack of financial and structural autonomy marred the functioning of this institution, thereby leading, to its replacement with the National Anti-Corruption Cameroon (NACC, known by its French acronym CONAC in, 2006. Since its creation, CONAC has led the fight against corruption mainly via investigation of corrupt officials and transmission of the reports to the presidency to visa the prosecution of the criminals. Aside CONAC, the office of supreme state Audit is also a leading body in the fight against corruption in Cameroon today. In 2011, a special criminal court was created to prosecute state officials who misappropriated funds valued equal to or above fifty million Francs CFA. Since then, several top state officials, including a former Prime Minister, minister of state in charge of territorial Administration and decentralization, minister of finance and numerous General Managers of public enterprise and para stater have been convicted by this court for funds. These are clear indications that the advent of the 21th century brought about a drastic change in the governments fight against corruption in Cameroon. The operation sparrow Hawk was Launched by the president of the republic and placed under the coordination of the vice Prime Minister, Minister of justice, and keeper of the seals, to track down and expose public servants who misappropriate state funds (Egbeyong, 2018:4) Despite being a dangerous phenomenon in the Cameroonian society, the danger of corruption is hugely amplified when it is the police themselves that are corrupt. They are expected to be the guardians of the rules and norms that are agreed upon in the country. As stated by Hubert (2002: 2), acts of corruption by people in power have long shaken public faith in government, but the loss of public faith is particularly acute when these acts involve the police that is because the public relies on the police to uphold law, protect the community and assist it in times of need. Police are the most visible arm of government for most citizens and a yard stick by which they measure authority when an officer acts illegally, he dishonors both himself and the law and justice system he represents. Unfortunately, the organizational culture of the police does encourage some offices to commit acts of corruption (William 2002:56). Such acts might involve taking monetary bribes, abusing their authority or concealing criminal enterprises more importantly, or ethnic and racial discrimination. When police organizations fail to punish travesties of justice, they inadvertently foster a culture of corruption that breads discrimination deception and greed. International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development @ www.ijtsrd.com eISSN: 2456-6470 @ IJTSRD | Unique Paper ID – IJTSRD47569 | Volume – 5 | Issue – 6 | Sep-Oct 2021 Page 1042 In Cameroon, the 2013 GCB shows that 69 percent of household had paid a bribe to police (Anti-corruption help desk). The judicial police is an enforcement body directed by the general Delegation for National Security (DGSN) and the state Secretariat for Defense (SED (Anti-Corruption help Desk). This is further buttressed by the A country profile of Cameroon published on the British Anti-corruption portal website, in a section titled Police (paragraph headed individual corruption”) which states. The Cameroonian police are perceived to be the most corrupt public institution in the country, with a large percentage of the surveyed households who had contact with the police in 2009 reporting to have paid a bribe, as illustrated in Transparency Internationals Global corruption Barometer (2010:98) . The US Department of state 2011 lists a few examples of how corruption takes place between the police and citizens, individuals reportedly pay bribe to police to secure their freedom or to pass through individuals involved in their personal disputes. The US Department of State (2011) further cites a 2010 report by the Minister of justice on Human Rights in Cameroon which states that 296 police officers were sentenced tried in 2010 for wrong doing, such as extortion. According to Global integrity (2008), it is customary for drivers to pay between 500frs and 1000frs in bribes at checkpoints”. Despite being a major cankerworm to administration and the economy as a whole, research on the roles and behavior of the police has been almost neglected in academia; with attention focused more on criminology. During the period of decolonization in the 1960s, however, observers and practitioners were acutely aware of the role of the police and judiciary for development. How eruptions of violence and development might be interlinked was a question of survival for old and new political elites alike. Like other police departments across the globe, leaders in the Buea police department are not immune to police misconduct and abuse of power as various cases of police brutality in the country have been reported in this sector. Community cases regarding the police misconduct have never been resolved and instead have been covered up by the leadership. The significance of the concept of leadership in the social sciences can be traced back seven thousand years ago; but interest in the leadership in the police organisations has only recently come to prominence among scholars and practitioners (Schafer, 2001:11). Leadership in the police forces has been discussed as the exercise of command authority in the event of crisis (Haberfeld, 2006:21). Rowe (2006:67), however, asserts that it is due to the current inflexibility in the police administration that bringing changes to the police organisation is like attempting to bend an iron’. This differentiates police, military and public safety from several other fields, where there is always the time to make changes by looking for inputs, producing consensus and communicating underlying principles (Mckinney, 2008:63). The capacity to perform all of these tasks might be needed by the police leaders simultaneously. The performance of police leaders has come under increasing scrutiny in the previous few decades, as the expectations placed on police organizations and their employees, driven by the goals pursuing optimal effectiveness and efficiency have shifted along with demands for significant programmatic, technological, administrative and strategic innovation (Braga & Weisburd, 2006:15). Analogous with changes in police practice, modern police organizations must embrace contemporary standards of organizational functioning, leadership and performance management. In essence, police organizations need to operate according to accountability and governance frameworks, similar to other complex organizations (Casey & Mitchell, 2007: 56). According to Elite et al. (2014), incidents in which police personnel cross their limit has led to the emergence of debate on the role of leadership to control police misconduct and their effective accountability across the globe. The complexity of the nature of policing and its implications for leadership lies in the fact that leaders lack the power to supervise the conduct of the bureaucrats in the streets. For example, although final decisions to detain and charge the suspect are taken at the police station by the limited number of senior police officers, the first decision to arrest a suspect and bring them to the police station lies in the hands of bureaucrats patrolling the streets. As such, their allegiance to meet personal benefits would result in decisions that would derail leaders’ ability to take right judgment about the true state of the crime or case. This is because as leaders at the bureau, they solely rely on these officers to know about the state of things in the field especially during patrol. According to Henry, (2003:93) the extent to which police executives and operational police officers create beneficial changes within their organizations to accommodate the evolving demands will not only determine the ultimate success and failure of policing as an institution, but will say a great deal about the quality and effectiveness of police leadership. Meanwhile, police work is experiencing major changes as those in the field continue to grapple with the challenging issues facing modern-day law enforcement from the increasing impact of video International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development @ www.ijtsrd.com eISSN: 2456-6470 @ IJTSRD | Unique Paper ID – IJTSRD47569 | Volume – 5 | Issue – 6 | Sep-Oct 2021 Page 1043 (citizen smartphones and police body cameras) to anti-terrorism efforts and the opioid epidemic (Fritzvold, 2020:32). Due to this evolution, police leadership styles are equally changing; from the ancient authoritative leadership style that had largely dominated the field to a more inclusive approach that seeks to enable and empower rather than simply command. Such that many police departments today have started recognizing the benefits of a more inclusive, transformational and transactional approaches, rather than relying solely on the more authoritative leadership style that has characterized police work for so long (Fritzvold, 2020:92). Authoritative leadership is strictly rule-based with a Problem Statement Changes in the organizational environment of the Cameroon public sector are increasingly complex and competitive; and as the nature, volume, and severity of crimes investigation increases from time to time among street level bureaucrats, efforts to curb this corruption have been tilted towards police leadership. Leaders are role models in organizations, so the change must start from the very top level (Jones: 2014: 6); where police force need reformist leaders who can be the driving force to curb corruption among street level bureaucrats. Based on Webers (1958: 8), 3 kinds of power in an organization; traditional authority wherein workers (considered servants) are dependent upon the leader (ford) working as their servants and following the stated rules and regulations blindly; charismatic power due to the extraordinary personality of the manager, the workers are deeply motivated to perform their best on the task allotted to them and legal rational authority where the workers need to abide by the legal rules or the naturally applicable laws. Hence, formal organisations like the police can borrow their leadership principles from it. Although it cannot be rightfully stated that the administration of the Civil department is as such, it is still obvious that a glimpse of it can be seen in the management of Civil departments, political and government organisations. This poses varied forms of challenges that Also, some organisations adopt the bureaucratic theory; wherein there is specialization as work is divided among the employees according to their skills, capabilities and expertise. There is equally skilled based recruitment as employees are recruited matching their skills and experiences as well as predictability as seen in a systematic hierarchy with defined rules and methods of performing the complicated tasks in the organization. Actions in similar situations become somewhat predictable for the management and the subordinates. There is equality as the management remains unbiased towards the employees and ensures a four judgement at the time of any issue, or problem in the organization. This is further buttressed by the concept of Planning, Organising, Staffing, Directing, Coordinating, Reporting and Budgeting (POSDCORB) developed by Luther Gullick and Lynda Urwick which highlights the theory of span of control, or limits on the number of people one manager could supervise, as well as unity of command to the fields of management and public administration. The Street level bureaucracy theory rather debunks the above; as Lipsky (1980: 9) presents a different leadership style applicable in scenarios where public service workers interact directly with citizens in the course of their jobs, and who have substantial discretion in the execution of their work. In such scenarios, there is no boss, subordinate relationship/supervision and bureaucrats in the field exercise their power with much discretion. There is likelihood that acts of corruption might be perpetrated here as subordinates (police officers) feel safer to engage in such acts without any fear of being caught. Hence, a monitoring mechanism need to be put in place to observe field workers. All these various leadership and management dimensions have different effects on the rate of corruption recorded in this departments; which is a concern to public administrators to be studied. According to Transparency international in its 2019 Corruption Perception Index, it is unfortunate that many instruments are missing in the countrys anti- corruption framework; these include the Anti- Corruption Law. Corrupt police officials arrest and abuse individuals in exchange for monetary rewards from influential entities and individuals. For instance, a popular Cameroon newspaper, the Journal du Cameroun.com (March, 2020) reported a clandestine network of three State officials allegedly involved in the illicit fabrication of Cameroon passport. While attempting to extort a huge amount of money from a Cameroonian student based in Canada who had returned to the country to renew her passport, the suspects asked the student to give them four hundred thousand frs instead of the seventy-eight thousand required to have the passport renewed within days. In Buea in particular, most people consider the police to be corrupt as they engineer strife, unfairly investigate crimes or even perpetrate them. As reported by Azohnwi in camerooninfo.net (July, 2020), taxi drivers in Buea grounded their tools to protest against what they describe as brutality and International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development @ www.ijtsrd.com eISSN: 2456-6470 @ IJTSRD | Unique Paper ID – IJTSRD47569 | Volume – 5 | Issue – 6 | Sep-Oct 2021 Page 1044 extortion from security forces in the town. The protesters said their annoyance stems from the fact that one of their colleagues was physically assaulted by a police officer who refused to give a FCFA 500 bribe to the officer arguing that his documents were complete and there was no reason for him to grease the palms of the law enforcement officer. It is this resistance that caused the police officer to slap the driver. Also, it is commonly reported that police in Buea arrest citizens unduly in their homes and along the streets and demand a fee for their released. This is considered a big scam to Cameroon security force as many ask did the people commit any crime? These acts of criminality have aggravated since the onset of the Anglophone crises as most officers conduct mass arrest and search of national identity cards and in return collect a ransom even for those in possession of National ID cards. All these and many make breed the notion that the leadership styles implemented by the officials of the Buea police force are inconsequential. The literature on police leadership styles influencing achievement of goals is an intricate area of study, especially when considering how police leaders and managers impact their bureaucrats towards exercising their roles (Densten, 2003; Durić, 2011; Sarver & Miller, 2014; Swid, 2014: 4). The problem is associated with the police leader’s demonstration of specific leadership styles which affect the attitudes and commitment of bureaucrats towards organizational policy measures and primarily exhibited through their attitude towards acts of corruption in the community. As such, leadership styles of police managers have some consequences in terms of police officers’ engagement in acts of corruption. To illustrate the influence of police leadership style and police officers’ commitment to obtain the organization goals, Jaramillo, Nixon, and Sams’ (2005: 135) study, surveying police officers working in three counties in Florida, proves that police officers whose supervisors support them in their work have more commitment to achieve organisational goals than police officers whose supervisors do not support them. By investigating the influence of leadership style on corruption in the Buea Police sector, it is hypothesized that leadership styles (transformational, transactional and laissez-faire leadership styles) have varying roles to play in combating corruption; yet each is effective by providing different ways in which leaders interact with subordinates to minimize corrupt practices among street level bureaucrats. The leadership styles of police managers may play a crucial role in transferring explicit and tacit knowledge about the ills of corruption and measures to resist the potential corruption schemes among police officers. Police managers’ leadership styles characterised by monitoring measures would reduce freedom and discretion among police bureaucrats and probably reduce the chances of corruption. Besides, existing studies are based on leadership styles (transformational and laissez-faire) and its influence on organisational performances/ job satisfaction (Miller, 2020; Ahmed, Zakeer, & Nawaz, Allah, & Khan, Irfan; 2016, Ali, Sidow & Guleid ; 2013: 9), the role of police management in knowledge sharing in a police organization (Alsayed, Motaghi and Osman 2012:48; Berg et al., 2008:98; Lin & Lee, 2004:90) while others emphasize the perception of the public about police leadership style (Domoro and Agil, 2012:28; Campbell and Kodz, 2011:13). More so, existing studies are conducted in different settings like Phoenix, India, Mogadishu, Palestine, Nigeria, etc. Few existing studies in Cameroon have addressed other aspects of corruption like fighting corruption in Africa: The anticorruption system in Cameroon (Nguemegne, 2011:75) and Cameroons anti- corruption campaign: a paper tiger (Ndikum, 2001:32). Hence, no study has been found addressing leadership styles and corruption in the police sector in Cameroon, making this study imperative. Besides, other studies do not embed the street level bureaucracy theory (Lipsky, 1980) which is a major theory that guides police officers exercise of duties in the society. This study would therefore address these major research lacunas. 1.2. Research Questions of the Study The research questions of the study comprise the general and specific research questions 1.2.1. General Research Question of the Study The main research question is; what is the link between bureaucratic leadership and corruption in the police service in Buea Municipality. 1.2.2. Specific Research Questions of the Study The following are the specific research questions of the study: 1. What is the link between transformational leadership style and corruption in the police service in Buea Municipality? 1.3. Objectives of the Study The work comprises the general and specific objectives of the study. 1.3.1. General Objectives of the Study This study seeks to investigate the link between bureaucratic leadership and corruption in the police service in Buea Municipality. International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development @ www.ijtsrd.com eISSN: 2456-6470 @ IJTSRD | Unique Paper ID – IJTSRD47569 | Volume – 5 | Issue – 6 | Sep-Oct 2021 Page 1045 1.3.2. Specific Objectives of the Study The specific objectives of the study are to: 1. Identify the link between the transformational leadership style and corruption in the police service in Buea Municipality; 1.4. Research Hypotheses The following are the testable research hypotheses of the study; 1. H0: μ = 1, i.e., there is a significant link between the transformational leadership style and corruption in the police service in Buea Municipality; 1. H1: μ = 1, i.e., there is a significant link between the transformational leadership style and corruption in the police service in Buea Municipality; 1.5. Significance of the Study This study is significant to academicians, Cameroon government and the police institution. Policy Significance The study was unique in its timing, as it was conducted at the very time that the government renewed its commitment to pursue greater success in the fight against corruption in Cameroon. Hence, findings about leadership styles and corruption would be beneficial to pave a pathway of economic prosperity and good governance as police managers would seek to uphold leadership styles that are most influential in curbing corruption. Hopefully, results would help in taking decisions towards emergence by 2035 (Ministry of the Economy, Planning, and Regional Development, 2009:2). The study coincided with renewed interest in the battle against corruption in Cameroon. Another significance of the study could be seen in the different government anticorruption strategies it would generate from the citizens who are most often victims of corruption. This might be perceived as effective, and thus would better address the needs of the people. This study would help the Cameroon government to review the various mechanism put in place to fight or curb corruption. This study would equally help the police in Cameroon to understand the disadvantages, corruption is causing to the social, economic and political sectors of the country. 2. LITERATURE REVIEW This chapter consist a review of literature; divided into 3 main sections. Conceptual review examines the two main concepts in this study, leadership styles (independent variable) and corruption (dependent variable). It is further examines the causes, manifestations, consequences and anti-corruption strategies in the police sector. It further presents theoretical review, empirical studies and ends with the research gap. 2.1. Conceptual Review 2.1.1. Leadership There is no agreed upon definition for the concept of leadership, rather there are almost as many definitions of leadership as there are persons who have attempted to define the concept (Stogdill, 1974: 34); an indication that leadership covers a broad range of topics for discussion and debate (Abdouli, 2017: 27). Also, different schools of thought have their own specific definitions of who a leader is or should be, but for the purpose of this study we apply some definitions that are deemed necessary in the police administration. To begin with, Deborah (2001: 56) defined a leader as an individual who is capable of visualizing an improved environment in the future and convinced others to join him/her on the journey. Lanny (2003: 20) considered a leader as someone who is hunted out for his/her expertise in data, guidelines and consultation; however, since experience has an essential role in this description of the leader, Fischer (2016: 23) suggested that a leader is made and not born. Marques (2009: 76) equally attempted this by advancing that leaders being made not born through arguing that all leaders are born as are all humans; however they came to lead due to life consequences, circumstances or other factors. Credibility of Fischers (2016: 6) and Marques’ (2009: 6) arguments holds by admitting that leaders may have been born with certain skills that resulted in enhancing their chances of becoming a leader. Extended to leadership, Northouse (2013) assert that leadership is a process whereby an individual influences a group of individuals to achieve a common target. Such practices are used by managers through their creative and knowledgeable skills of leadership. Leadership basically refers to either the behaviour of an individual or the organization as a unit of analysis which creates a culture that integrates what the organization claims it believes and how it actually behaves in a critical element in optimizing organizational performances. According to Burns (1978: 5), leadership means leaders inducing followers to act for certain goals that represent the values and the motivation--the wants and needs, the aspirations and expectations--of both leaders and followers. And the genius of leadership lies in the manner in which leaders see and act on their own and their followers’ values and motivations. Leadership aims to make the organization more relevant; by creating and proposing innovative International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development @ www.ijtsrd.com eISSN: 2456-6470 @ IJTSRD | Unique Paper ID – IJTSRD47569 | Volume – 5 | Issue – 6 | Sep-Oct 2021 Page 1046 problem solving mechanisms, and see to that policies which were introduced to address the changes been brought about by modernization and transformation, are effectively implemented. This also applies to the anti-corruption measures created by government Yukl (1989: 19) defines leadership as “the process of influencing others to understand and agree about what needs to be done and how to do it, and the process of facilitating individual and collective efforts to accomplish shared objectives”. It also refers to the process whereby an individual influences a group of individuals to achieve a common goal. Viewing leadership as a process means that leaders affect and are affected by their followers either positively or negatively. It also stresses the fact that leadership is a two-way, interactive event between leaders and followers rather than a linear, one-way event in which the leader only affects the followers (Barrett, 2006: 67). Besides, other aspects of leadership involves: leadership as a process, leadership involves influencing others, leadership happens within the context of a group, leadership involves goal attainment, and these goals are shared by leaders and their followers. The very act of defining leadership as a process suggests that leadership is not a characteristic or trait with which only a few, certain people are endowed with at birth (Asamoah, 2017: 54). Defining leadership as a process means that leadership is a transactional event that happens between leaders and their followers. Leadership happens most often among people and usually involves the use of influence to attain goals. Influencing people imply that the relationship between leader and his people are not passive. Furthermore, influence has been made to attain some specific end or goal. So, when Fairhurt (2007: 23) defines leadership as the ability to influence people towards the achievement of goals then he captures the idea that leaders must be involved with other people in the attainment of results or goals. The attitude and behaviors put forth by leaders play an essential role in molding followers’ attitudes especially in terms of job satisfaction and commitment to the organization. Different leaders behave in ways that are also different yet their success or otherwise could be a function of their followers needs and the situation prevailing within the organization (Kornor and Nardvik, 2010: 34). Leadership is a widely researched management subject owing to its role in meeting organizational goals. Public Administration scholars have begun to investigate leadership practices in public organizations (Orazi, Turrini, & Valotti, 2013; Van Wart, 2013: 87). Existing research however, focuses largely on the impact of transformational and transactional leadership practices (Orazi, Turrini, & Valotti, 2013; Van Wart, 2013: 124) with few studies assessing the influence of ethical managerial leadership in public organizations (Hassan, 2015; Hassan, Wright, & Yukl, 2014: 23). Modern concepts of leaders’ responsibility in the police sector have imposed some new tasks on the police and have increased the proportion of police effort directed at others. Police administrators are devoting increasing attention to the problem of the juvenile delinquent; special divisions charged with the control of juvenile crime and some form of treatment of the problem child (Wilson, 2017: 7). A recognition of the need for public support has also resulted in the direction of police effort into new channels; informing the public, organizing the community, and improving their public relations are tasks that are recognized today byprogressive police administrators as essential to the effective accomplishment of their purpose (Killian, 2007: 78). Both the police and the public have recognized a relationship between vice and organized crime with its concomitant corruption and acts of terrorism has resulted in an increasing proportion of police effort directed at their repression. Moving beyond the definition of the concepts of leadership, the bottom line upon which this study is built seeks to address leadership styles in the police sector (Key and Dennis, 2011: 5). A leader could be seen as any individual who has followers; this means that the styles leaders manifest should have influence over their subordinates. It is important to note the difference between management and leadership here since often these two variables of organisational life are misunderstood as a common phenomenon (Bargau, 2015: 98). Miltenbergers (2004: 7) presented some leadership qualities that many individuals often linked to leaders. These are: ➢ Self-awareness –the capacity for "leading" one’s own self before leading others. ➢ Awareness of workplace – the ability to understand the workplace they are leading in and how they are affected by or affecting it. ➢ Rejection of determinism –the conviction of one's ability to make a difference”. ➢ Ability to encourage and nurture subordinates – leaders gradually delegate tasks in such a manner that their subordinates gain experience. ➢ Role modelling – leaders adopt a personality that encapsulates their duty and lead by example. ➢ Empathy – leaders understand what others are saying, instead of analyzing how they say things. International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development @ www.ijtsrd.com eISSN: 2456-6470 @ IJTSRD | Unique Paper ID – IJTSRD47569 | Volume – 5 | Issue – 6 | Sep-Oct 2021 Page 1047 In other words, we can sum up empathy as walking in somebody elses shoes. ➢ Charismatic inspiration – being attractive to others and the ability to leverage this appreciation in motivating subordinates. Therefore, leadership qualities are the abilities of the leaders to lead and direct their subordinates without misusing their powers, and inspiring their staff while bearing in mind that their behaviours are always imitated by their subordinates (Miltenberger, 2004: 65). Ram (2007: 8) added that these qualities refer to the positive or negative character of a leader. As noted earlier, quality can be described by synonyms like properties, attributes, character and traits. Police organisations generally deal with apprehension of criminals, prevention and detection of crimes in the community. Studies on leadership in police and military organisations reveal that police officials need supportive management and organisational support to improve their commitment (Dick and Metcalfe, 2007; Young and Dulewicz, 2009; Vito et al., 2011: 67). This requires that leaders in the police like any other organization are a key component of supportive management; to improve subordinates’ commitment; leaders need to provide organisational support and motivation. According to Denstens (2003: 43), subordinates in the senior police official who receive clear direction from the leaders are more likely to perform well, and more likely to have higher job satisfaction than those who do not receive clear directions from leaders. Many experienced police managers and officers found it difficult to accept this challenge to the practices and procedures that had always guided their actions. Thus, it was not surprising that these innovations were often overwhelmed by traditional policies and that the innovators were frequently suspected of being manipulated by outsiders or of pursuing their personal career agendas at the expense of the organization. Many of todays police managers have supplemented their professional education by studying literature developed since the 1970’s. Once considered radical, many of the strategies that evolved from this research on policing are now considered necessary for improving performance. Ideas that were raised 20 years ago have been modified and expanded to fit current conditions. Police executives realize that it is no longer sufficient to think in terms of making only minor alterations to traditional management and operational practices. Managements current challenge is to meet the escalating and varied demands for service with more effective delivery strategies to optimize staff and resources, to encourage innovative thinking, and to involve the community in policing efforts The US Bureau of Justice Assistance (1999) stated that there are compelling reasons why law enforcement leaders believe the time has come to alter the policies and practices of their organizations. These reasons are rooted in the history of policing and police research during the last quarter of a century, in the changing nature of communities, and in the shifting characteristics of crime and violence that affect these communities. Policing strategies that worked in the past are no more effective today; as the desired goal, an enhanced sense of safety, securities, and well-being, have not been achieved. Practitioners agree that there is a pressing need for innovation to curb the crises in many communities. Both the level and nature of crime in this country and the changing character of most communities are causing police to seek more effective methods. More specifically, many urban communities are experiencing serious problems with illegal drugs, gang violence, murders, muggings, and burglaries. Suburban and rural communities have not escaped unscathed. They are also noting increases in crime and disorder. Delivering great leadership is far from the sole preserve of those at the top of the organization. It exists across all ranks, grades and roles and can describe at different levels: individual, operational, senior and organisational (UK College of Policing, 2017: 6). Research on Sergeants and Platoon Leaders suggested that transformational leadership styles positively impact on platoon performance (Bass et al., 2003: 56). The finding also suggests that those Sergeants with transformational leadership had a greater impact on the platoons performance than did the platoon leaders. That is, direct leadership and line managers are important in facilitating commitment and group performance. These findings provide an account on how transformational leadership can influence employees’ performance, commitment, as well as job satisfaction within the context of a military organization. Vito, Higgins, and, Denney (2014: 54), advocate that the transactional/transformational leadership applies well to police leadership. Moreover, Andreescu and Vito (2010: 9) show that police officers tend to favor a transformational leadership style for their managers. 2.1.2. Leadership Styles applicable in the Police Force Leadership styles are the manners and approached of providing direction, implementing plans, and motivating people. It includes the total pattern of explicit and implicit actions performed by their leader (Newstrom, Davis, 1993: 54).There are many forms International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development @ www.ijtsrd.com eISSN: 2456-6470 @ IJTSRD | Unique Paper ID – IJTSRD47569 | Volume – 5 | Issue – 6 | Sep-Oct 2021 Page 1048 and styles of leadership, sometimes they are called supervisory styles. Leadership is a complex research area and cuts across all sectors of life; there is much ambiguity over which styles and behaviours are the most effective (Campbell and Kodz, 2011: 231). Difficulties of linking leadership with organisational outcomes are particularly pronounced for the police, since common police performance measures are affected by multiple confounding factors. The first major study of leadership styles was performed in 1939 by Kurt Lewin who led a group of researchers to identify different styles of leadership (Lewin, Lippit, White, 1939: 67). This early study has remained quite influential as it established the three major leadership styles; authoritarian or autocratic participative or democratic delegative or laissez-fair (free-rein) (U.S. Army, 1973: 76). Also, Bass and Avolio (1994: 67) presented three different types of leadership qualities (transformational, transactional and laissez-faire) in the police departments with each displaying its own distinct qualities; Cain (2017: 8) presents two leadership styles that emerged as critical in law enforcement departments; the situational leadership and transformational leadership styles. Besides, Sickels (2015) advanced three forms of leadership style applicable in the police force: 1) Transactional Leadership, 2) Transformational Leadership and 3) Laissez-Faire Leadership. Fritsvold, (2019) advanced that police work is undergoing significant change as those in the field continue to grapple with the challenging issues facing modern-day law enforcement; from the increasing impact of video (citizen smartphones and police body cameras) to anti-terrorism efforts and the opioid epidemic. As a part of this evolution, police leadership styles are also gradually changing, moving from the authoritative style that has largely dominated the field to a more inclusive approach that seeks to enable and empower rather than simply command. Today, many departments are beginning to recognize the benefits of a more inclusive, transformational and transactional approach, rather than relying solely on the more militaristic, authoritative approach that has characterized police work for so long. Hence, this study is hinged on prominent leadership styles empirically identified by scholars in business and public administration due to the outmoded nature of the others. Transformational Leadership Style According to Burns (1978: 6), transformational leadership happens when people take part in the leadership process and engage with others in such a way that each of them can elevate each other to a higher level of motivation. The focus is on encouraging the success of others. A transformational leader develops a vision of the future intended to excite and inspire followers. Ideally, transformation leaders create valuable and positive change in their followers with the end goal of teaching them to become leaders. According to (White, 2018: 19) transformational leadership is a theory of leadership where a leader works with teams to identify needed change, creating a vision to guide the change through inspiration, and executing the change in tandem with committed members of a group. With the transformational leadership style, leaders encourage, inspire and motivate employees to innovate and create change that will help grow and shape the future success of the company (Towler, 2019: 12). This is accomplished by setting an example at the executive level through a strong sense of corporate culture, employee ownership and independence in the workplace. Transformational leaders create a vision for their followers and guide the change through inspiration and motivation. They are excellent role models and their followers emulate many of their actions. They also inspire through activating follower self-efficacy so that followers believe that they can go beyond expectations (Barth-Farkas & Vera, 2014: 18). Transformational leaders inspire and motivate their workforce without micromanaging they trust trained employees to take authority over decisions in their assigned jobs. Its a management style thats designed to give employees more room to be creative, look to the future and find new solutions to old problems. Employees on the leadership track will also be prepared to become transformational leaders themselves through mentorship and training. The reputation of transformational leadership is significant of a major shift in stance from more traditional transactional models of leadership that have become increasingly belittled over recent years (Cockcroft, 2014: 13). These conventional leadership styles began to be viewed by many as ineffective due to their reliance on what was viewed as little more than the imposition of contractual relationships’ (Bass and Avolio, 1993: 11). Through these relationships, workers are motivated by reward and punishment structures that encourage an orientation to organizational engagement predicated upon self- interest rather than through any real emotional association with the values of the organization. Under such models, workers are motivated through rewards for displays of appropriate behaviour and punished for that which is considered inappropriate (Engel and Worden, 2003: 23). International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development @ www.ijtsrd.com eISSN: 2456-6470 @ IJTSRD | Unique Paper ID – IJTSRD47569 | Volume – 5 | Issue – 6 | Sep-Oct 2021 Page 1049 According to Bass and Avolio (1994: 12) transformational leadership can be categorized into 4: A. Idealized influence: By this, leaders show admiration for their followers in order to use this credit to meet their and their followers’ needs. Since they have moral values, they do not use their power for personal gain. B. Inspirational motivation: Here, leaders emphasize the motivation of their followers to achieve the teams and the organizations shared goals. They always seek ways to inject passion into their followers. C. Intellectual stimulation: Leaders here are respectful of their followers’ ideas and opinions. Additionally, they encourage their followers to use their ideas and opinions in order to be innovative. D. Individualized consideration: Leaders pay special attention to their followers’ individual needs. They evaluate their followers not only as employees but also as individuals whose expectations and opinions should be respected. Viewed in another dimension, Bodla and Nawas (2010: 26) indicate that one of the components of transformational leadership; that is, idealized influence has two aspects: idealized influence (attributed), idealized influence (behavioral). Bryan (1992) advanced that the charismatic leadership which was proposed initially by House (1977: 65), is synonymous with the transformational leadership; although, charismatic leadership is a component of transformational leadership (idealized influence) (Bryman, 1992). Charismatic leadership takes prominence as the center process of transformation leadership. The trust and confidence toward to leader is so high that the followers have admiration and good feelings about their leaders` vision (Bass, Avolio, & Bebb, 1987: 67). Table 1: Characteristics of Transformational Leaders Charisma Provides vision and sense of mission, instills pride, gains respect and trust Inspiration Communicates high expectations, uses symbols to focus efforts, expresses important purposes in simple ways Intellectual Stimulation Promotes intelligence, rationality, and careful problem solving. Individualized Consideration Gives personal attention, treats each employee individually, coaches and advises Source: Decker, John P. (2018). "A Study of Transformational Leadership Practices to Police Ofcers' Job Satisfaction and Organizational Commitment" Seton Hall University Dissertations and Teses (ETDs). 1. Charisma: As presented on Table 1, Robbins (2005: 78) posits that charisma is the most important characteristic that highlights transformational leaders. They have a lot of charisma, they display high intellect and they provide individualized considerations. Transformational leaders have a clear plan and vision, and they try to pass their goal and plan to the organizations members, leaders here are respected and trusted by their followers. 2. Inspiration: Robbins (2005: 90) equally advanced that transformational leaders are known to inspire their subordinates, and they have great expectations of them and they let them know it (Table 1). 3. Intellectual Stimulation, Such leaders in this category use their intelligence to deal with problems and employees, they teach their employees to be rational and how to deal with their problems intelligently (Table 1). 4. Individualized Consideration: Lastly, transformational leaders tend to have a deeper connection with their employees professionally and personally (Robbins 2005: 56). In relation to the police sector, transformational leaders can foster a positive change in their agencies and communities by addressing the low morale of officers who are policing in an anti-police society. The animosity, mistrust, and criticism of law enforcement officers which demeans their position and exposes them to great corruption offers is present on the news, social media, and in our streets. A transformational leader must foster collaboration by mending wounds both internally and externally. Leaders can inspire officers by highlighting their achievements, recognizing their strengths, providing opportunities for growth, and honing their skills. In all, transformational leaders’ behavioral characteristics are appropriate for them to be a model for the people they lead; since they have respect and trust and constitute an excellent example for their subordinates to be emulated. Also that, transformational leaders are believed to have extra capabilities and special personalities, likewise, they prefer dealing rather than arbitrating. They can take risk whenever required and present a high level of moral behaviors (Carmenaty, 2013: 45). Their focus is on longer term goals instead of short term goals; as International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development @ www.ijtsrd.com eISSN: 2456-6470 @ IJTSRD | Unique Paper ID – IJTSRD47569 | Volume – 5 | Issue – 6 | Sep-Oct 2021 Page 1050 they set the goals and give importance to the vision as well as inspire followers to track the vision. If a change is required for the vision to be accomplished, they change the system instead of insisting on the existing systems. Moreover, transformational leaders encourage their followers to take more responsibility both for their and others` development (Howell & Avolio, 1993: 65). According to Bass, Avolio, and Bebb (1987: 23) transformational leaders respect their subordinates` beliefs and values with intellectual stimulation. In this way, police leaders encourage their subordinates to think in new ways in the process of solving problems. With their leaders` intellectual stimulation, followers develop their capabilities to solve future problems. Besides, inspirational motivation is an important component of the transformational leadership style. Transformational leaders with inspirational motivation inspire and motivate their subordinates in terms of committing them to the vision of the organization; they also support the team spirit (Avolio, 1999). Bass (1996: 109) stresses that a transformational leader behaves in ways that motivate and inspire those around them by providing meaning and challenge to their followers` work. In other words, leaders create enthusiasm and optimism. Followers are involved in the process of transforming the organization`s future. With the enthusiasm created by the leaders, followers are inspired to commit to the organizations goals and shared visions. Burns (1978: 111) further expands upon transforming leadership by stating that leaders can shape, alter, and evaluate the motives, values, and goals of followers through the vital teaching role of leadership, regardless of separate personal interests. They are presently and potentially united in the pursuit of higher goals, the realization of which is tested by the achievement of significant change that represents the collective interests of leaders and followers. Burns believes that both forms of leadership contribute to human purpose and draws heavily upon. Exploring leadership opportunities that arise from supervisors to street-level bureaucrats, the transformational leadership dimensions through its major aspects of idealized influence (attributed) and idealized influence (behavioral). Leaders with idealized influence are often claimed to set a behavioral example supportive of an espoused organizational vision (Wright and Pandey 2010: 56); but they may also occupy a role model position by means of their strong moral principles and values (Northouse, 2018: 56). Subordinates identify with these leaders (Yukl, 2010: 6), which implies that idealized influence appeals to street-level bureaucrats’ sense of affiliation with their supervisor. In addition, the support and encouragement that are intrinsic to the individualized consideration factors which are likely to appeal to street-level bureaucrats’ basic human need for caring and approval a key driver of individual-level attitude change (Briñol and Petty, 2005: 23). Leaders aim to create attitude and value consistency among bureaucrats because these personal dispositions determine how street-level bureaucrats process information (Keiser 2010: 32). If the supervisors’ discretion use is shaped by their own personal beliefs and they aim to create attitudinal consistency among subordinates, they are likely to pass their own attitude towards clients on to the street-level bureaucrats they supervise (Brewer 2005: 9). Transactional Leadership Style The transactional leadership style is one in which the leader interacts with people to exchange valuable resources, such as rewards. Transactional leadership emerges when the leader implements rewards or discipline to the followers according to their level of performance (Avolio & Bass, 2002: 87). The main aim of engaging with each other is to exchange information and receive rewards or punishments based on the quality of that information. This contract between transactional leaders and others can only be maintained until the contract ends. Transactional leaders use power to gain benefits, while followers correspondingly fulfill the requirement of the work until there is a harmony between the rewards they receive and their needs (Flood, Hannan, Smith, Turner, West & Dawson, 2000: 87). Transactional leadership has three major components: contingent reward, management by exception (active) and management-by-exception (passive). Contingent reward refers to the leaders who provide material or psychological rewards to their followers for obeying the rules and fulfilling task requirements. Also, a leader using the contingent reward method make an agreement with the follower, promising him/her a reward if he/she does his/her assignment in a satisfactory way (Avolio & Bass, 2002: 32). Management-by exception (active) refers to the leaders who observe their subordinates’ wrong actions, those opposite the rules and standards of the organization or project, in order to correct their actions. While, management-by-exception (passive) refers to leaders who only intervene and take action when subordinates fail to fulfill the required rules and objectives (Goldstein, 1990: 6). In other words, on one hand there are leaders that are not scared to correct any deviations of rules or regulations and on the other hand, there are leaders that only intervene if International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development @ www.ijtsrd.com eISSN: 2456-6470 @ IJTSRD | Unique Paper ID – IJTSRD47569 | Volume – 5 | Issue – 6 | Sep-Oct 2021 Page 1051 the rules and regulations are not met by the employees. The leader neglects to provide instructions when subordinates met their objectives, he allows subordinates to continue to do work as usual as long as they meet performance goals. He intervenes only when problems arise. In the public sector, the leader monitors the subordinates, keeping track of whether they keep to the standards and do the correct things in the process of completing their assignments. If needed, the leader takes action to correct the mistake. No action is taken unless the subordinates make a mistake or error in their assignments. Required correction is taken after a subordinates mistake (Avolio & Bass, 2002: 15). As seen on Table 2, the key characteristics to Transactional leaders include: (1) Contingent Reward, which is basically rewarding employees with incentives in order to praise their good performance, (2) Management by Exception (active) and (3) Management by Exception (passive), There are two different types of managers by exception in the category of transactional leaders, on one hand there are leaders that are not scared to correct any deviations of rules or regulations. On the other hand, there are transactional leaders that only intervene if the rules and regulations are not met by the employees (Robbins 2005: 25 ). Table 2: Key Characteristics to Transactional Leaders Contingent Reward Contracts exchange of rewards for effort, promises rewards for good performance, recognizes accomplishments Management by Exception (active) Watches and searches for deviations from rules and standards, takes corrective action Management by Exception (passive): Intervenes only if standards are not met. Source: Decker, John P. (2018). "A Study of Transformational Leadership Practices to Police Officers' Job Satisfaction and Organizational Commitment" Seton Hall University Dissertations and Teses (ETDs). Laissez-Faire Leadership Style Loosely translated from its French origins, laissez- faire leadership style basically means let it be or leave it alone. In practice, it means leaders leave it up to their subordinates to complete responsibilities in a manner they choose, without requiring strict policies or procedures (Rashid, Edmondson and Leonard, 2000: 76). Laissez-faire leadership, also known as delegative leadership, is a type of leadership style in which leaders are hands-off and allow group members to make the decisions. Researchers have found that this is generally the leadership style that leads to the lowest productivity among group members. The laissez-faire leadership style is often credited to Kurt Lewin, who is an early contributor to the study of social psychology. Although Lewin recognized laissez-faire leadership as one of three primary management styles, he did not subscribe to it as his preferred leadership method. Lewin simply identified laissez-faire leadership as the opposite of autocratic leadership. This type of leadership could be used in the public services when there are some highly skilled employees that are already well experienced in their jobs (Hampton, 2018: 68). The leader fully trusts his group to get on with a specific task and knows that they should not need to get involved with it. This is a leadership style that could be quite difficult to get right because leaders find it difficult not to get involved with their group. The group could also find it quite difficult under a laissez-faire leadership because they would not get that guidance they require to be able to grow and develop or they might not be set on task and get distracted easier. As such, Hampton proposes that this leadership style is most often used in the police force when police officers reach a high rank, they would not need as much leadership as a newly recruited police officer would need. They would still need some leadership but it would be very minimal because they could get on with their job and are perfectly happy with what they are doing (2018). The type of leadership they would receive would be a basic briefing and told the basic requirements of what they need to do and then they could be left alone to complete the task before the set schedule. It would be unnecessary for a experienced police officer to be supervised because they know what their job is to do and that they are safe to be able to get on with it themselves This laissez-faire leadership entails giving managers and staff wide latitude in carrying out their responsibilities. People who work for laissez-faire leaders are responsible for completing tasks and identifying issues. Moreover, they are expected to anticipate near-term problems and spot upcoming opportunities. Laissez-faire leaders usually allow staff to capitalize on opportunities without having to check in with their superiors. From a laissez-faire leader's perspective, the key to success is to build a strong team and then stay out of the way. Laissez-faire is a style of leadership that does not require much from the leader. For instance, Kacy (2018: 78) advanced International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development @ www.ijtsrd.com eISSN: 2456-6470 @ IJTSRD | Unique Paper ID – IJTSRD47569 | Volume – 5 | Issue – 6 | Sep-Oct 2021 Page 1052 that in a police study the team leader chose to use the laissez-faire leadership style when briefing their senior team because they should already be experienced and knowledgable in their job and wouldn't need as much guidance as a recruit would. According to Kacy, It is the leaders job to motivate their team to make sure that after the briefing they could be left alone to complete the task to a high standard. The leader has to make sure they trust each member of the group and that they are capable of doing the job without slacking or messing it up. The team leader must also make sure the group respect them because if they group do not respect the leader they would be unlikely to take the tasks set by the leader seriously. One criticism of the laissez-faire leadership style is that it tends to favor success-oriented people rather than those who solve society's most pressing problems. In other words, laissez-faire leadership tends to serve the needs of the people who most benefit from it. This can be counterintuitive to the objectives of corporate responsibility. Other management models, like servant leadership, focus on good corporate citizenship. The objective is to serve the needs of customers, communities and disenfranchised groups. However, if you look at laissez-faire leadership as a management style rather than as an economic philosophy, it can be used effectively to initiate positive change in the same way that transformative and servant leadership styles do. For example, a laissez-faire leader who oversees the R&D division for a pharmaceutical company or biotech firm may surround herself with highly qualified experts charged with developing new drugs to treat or cure cancer. A team led by a laissez-faire leader does not make the manager's objectives any less worthy than a similar group led by a democratic or autocratic leader. Summarily, the three leadership styles applicable in the law enforcement sector include the transformational, transactional (participative) and laissez-fair (delegative) leadership styles. Besides, various leadership styles and theories influence police leadership styles and none is showing a distinct advantage over the other (Decker, 2018: 5). Although good leaders use all these three styles, one of them is normally dominant while bad leaders tend to stick with one style. From transformational to situational leadership style, each of them has a role and purpose in the leadership approach of law enforcement executives throughout history. Bass & Avolio (2004: 76) used the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ) which was designed to measure seven different leadership factors. The first four measuring transformational leadership behaviors are identified as the Four I’s and include idealized influence (II) (serve as role models emphasizing admiration, respect and trust), inspirational motivation (IM) (motivate and inspire through meaningful and challenging work), intellectual stimulation (IS) (stimulate followers’ efforts toward innovation and creativity by adapting and reframing problems), and individualized consideration (IC) (special attention provided to individual follower needs for achievement and growth as a coach/mentor). This is followed by two factors considered aspects of the transactional leadership approach: contingent reward (leaders assigning tasks and providing specific rewards in exchange for satisfactory completion) and management-by- exception (a corrective action to address employee behavior only when identified and a need exists for specific improvement). The last factor measured is the laissez-faire style, better known as the concept of the absence of leadership and is considered neither transformational nor transactional. As such, the police departments would presumably implement the authoritarian/autocratic leadership due to the nature and cultures of the organizations, but recent research (Sarver & Miller, 2014; Kapla, 2005: 221) indicates that a move toward a more transformational, transactional, and situational approaches is taking place. Besides, it appears that leadership styles vary amongst various supervisory ranks in the police sector; such that a combination of these styles is sometimes displayed (Caless 2011: 34) and can be more effective in managing corruption in the police sector. 2.1.3. The Guiding Principles Structure for Effective Leadership in the Police sector The College of Policing Limited (2017) presents nine guiding principles structured across three themes for effective leadership in the police sector. They include; A. Understanding leadership; Current leadership capabilities, Future leadership capabilities and Setting direction B. Developing leadership; Performance, Learning and development and Talent C. Displaying leadership; Morale and wellbeing, Innovation and Diverse leadership teams. International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development @ www.ijtsrd.com eISSN: 2456-6470 @ IJTSRD | Unique Paper ID – IJTSRD47569 | Volume – 5 | Issue – 6 | Sep-Oct 2021 Page 1053 Source: UK College of Policing (2017: 81) Figure 1: Guiding Principles for Organisational Leadership As seen on Figure 1, College of Policing (2017: 43), leadership effectiveness embodies three aspects; understanding, developing and displaying leadership; as expounded below. 188.8.131.52. Understanding Leadership; Being the first principle of leadership effectiveness, understanding leadership can be obtained in three different ways; examining the current leadership capabilities, future leadership opportunities then setting direction. Current Leadership Capabilities: Leadership effectiveness can only be enhanced if police leaders have a comprehensive and up-to-date knowledge of leadership capability within the force. This requires that senior leaders should have a clear understanding of expected leadership capabilities (UK College of Policing, 2017). For example, by benchmarking against national standards and data. Also, senior leaders should ensure that there are fair and effective systems for gathering data on leadership strengths and development needs at each rank and grade. These systems include using psychometric and 360° tools at an individual level, and staff survey data at a team and organisational level and performance measures which will consider both quantitative and qualitative data. Senior forces should equally use data about leadership capability to improve organisational, team and individual performance (Arets, Jennings, and Heijnen, 2015: 65). This includes making decisions about appointments to all leadership positions and placing officers and staff across the force. Those leaders should act as role models and should be visible and accessible at all levels, allowing them to share and promote good leadership practice. More advanced forces will have a number of complementary approaches to developing their understanding of force leadership capability. These International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development @ www.ijtsrd.com eISSN: 2456-6470 @ IJTSRD | Unique Paper ID – IJTSRD47569 | Volume – 5 | Issue – 6 | Sep-Oct 2021 Page 1054 approaches can include collaborating to encourage and build understanding of what works’ in developing leadership capability. As such, leaders in the police sector should plan and assess ways to develop personal, professional and business skills, creating a learning culture in the force. Future Leadership Capabilities This requires that leaders in the police forces should plan for future needs. That is, forces should have the right skills and knowledge in place to lead beyond organisational boundaries and traditional hierarchies. They should have access to development activities and business improvement models that provide access to opportunities with partners and wider cross-sector group (UK College of Policing, 2017: 67). This collaboration will develop the leadership capacity of the whole organisation and improve the skills of leaders operating in complex networks. The College of Policing will support this approach by developing a new model for leadership development and management training. Also, a new leadership development model based on a concept of 70:20:10 learning and development (Arets, Jennings and Heijnen 2015: 43), emphasises learning on the job’ rather than through classroom- based programme attendance. That is, development activities could help prepare police forces to anticipate the effect of new technology on their work and utilise new systems to their advantage. Activities could also develop knowledge of ethical leadership approaches, which allows the workforce to understand their strengths and weaknesses, and helps senior leaders demonstrate that they welcome challenge. Working with other forces and cross-sector partners can improve insight into future planning needs. Wider partnership working will require skills of influence and persuasion as well as skills in building and maintaining relationship. Setting Direction This aspect of understanding leadership requires that forces in the police sector should set a positive, ambitious and realistic future direction that is supported by a clearly defined vision and underpinned by the Code of Ethics. That is, senior leaders should set future direction in collaboration with stakeholders, including the public, in line with the strategic priorities of the police and crime commissioner, and ensure that these are translated into a strongly shared common purpose across and beyond the force (Rossett and Schafer, 2007: 176). There is also need for officers and staff to feel inspired in being part of this future direction and understand the part it plays. In order for forces to meet future challenges, some approaches should be consistently implemented and evaluated across the whole of the police service. For instance, the values articulated in the Code of Ethics should be evident in every force; that is, in recruitment, selection and promotion processes, reflecting a fair and transparent approach. This might include involving other non-policing partners in selection processes. A shared understanding of the future direction will clearly link to expectations of actions, behaviours and values at all ranks and grades. Forces should also have effective ways to provide challenge, enabling views and opinions to be freely fed upwards with evidence of action. 184.108.40.206. Developing Leadership This is the second guiding principle; which is further subdivided into three aspects: performance, learning and development and talent as explained below. ➢ Performance Leaders in the police force should have a strong ethos of personal improvement with individuals taking personal responsibility for their own continuing professional development and senior leaders being role models. Since leaders have an important responsibility in being role models for improvement, setting and displaying the right standards of behaviour across the force; they should show how their Continuing Professional Development reflects and will benefit the future needs of the force (Arets, Jennings and Heijnen, 2015: 54). A strong ethos of improvement should exist as part of a healthy organisational culture, with well-defined and well- implemented development processes at each rank and grade. Also, forces should recognise that improved leadership performance can also lead to improved organisational performance. They should have a clear method to classify and assess performance, role requirements and personal qualities, consistent with force objectives, future direction and leadership culture. This method could include the new competency and values framework (College of policing, 2017: 67). Most importantly, leaders in the police force should move away from a target-driven culture to a more qualitative model which allows individuals to use their discretion, while drawing on an evidence base of what works’. They should prioritise meeting the needs of the public over purely numerical targets. As such, they should be able to exhibit evidence of holding regular meetings at all levels to discuss progress towards individual performance objectives and the added value this approach has bought. International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development @ www.ijtsrd.com eISSN: 2456-6470 @ IJTSRD | Unique Paper ID – IJTSRD47569 | Volume – 5 | Issue – 6 | Sep-Oct 2021 Page 1055 3. METHODOLOGY AND DESCRIPTION OF THE STUDY AREA This study investigated the relationship between leadership styles and corruption in the Buea police force; using the perception of both police officers and police leaders. This research was designed as a case study survey as the data was collected only in the Buea Police force. This chapter presents the methodology of the study and vividly describes the study area, the research approach, research design, population, target population, sample and sampling techniques, sampling frame, method of data collection, method of data presentation, method of data analysis, validity and reliability of instruments, and ethical considerations. 3.1. Background and study area Police refers to a body of officers representing the civil authority of government. Police typically are responsible for maintaining public order and safety, enforcing the law, and preventing, detecting, and investigating criminal activities. The word police has meaning attached to each of its letters as: P – polite O – obedience L – loyal I – intelligence C – consensus or consciousness E – endurance Meaning the main duty of a police protection of people, property and their institutions. These functions are known as policing. Police are often also entrusted with various licensing and regulatory activities. There is a remarkable historical, geographic, and organizational diversity in the activities of people who are, or have been, defined as police. Police work has developed considerably from what it was centuries ago (Banton, Walsh and Brodeur, 2021: 4). As populations grew and informal institutions of socialization and social control such as the family, schools, and the church decreased in effectiveness, police became increasingly necessary. However, no uniform worldwide system of policing ever emerged. Numerous factors help to explain the diversity of police activities and systems. The types of crime typically committed in a society and the methods used by criminals play a great part in determining a police forces activities. For instance, if criminals use firearms, the police are likely to be armed, or if criminals use computers to commit crimes, the police may establish a special unit dedicated to investigating cybercrimes. History also helps to explain this diversity; e.g., former colonies tend to keep the policing system established by their colonizers. Population plays an important role as well; policing rural areas and villages vastly differs from policing large cities. Foremost among the factors that determine a countrys system of policing, however, are the political culture of the society e.g., whether it is open and democratic or closed and totalitarian and the states conception of police accountability. The Buea police force refers to the civil force responsible for the prevention and detection of crime and the maintenance of public order in Buea. There are 7 police checkpoints in Buea municipality, namely: Misselele checkpoint, Mile 14 checkpoint, Mile 16 checkpoint, Muea check point, Tole 1 Checkpoint, Tole 2 checkpoint and Mile 4 (Limbe entrance). Some checkpoints can be created depending on the situation. International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development @ www.ijtsrd.com eISSN: 2456-6470 @ IJTSRD | Unique Paper ID – IJTSRD47569 | Volume – 5 | Issue – 6 | Sep-Oct 2021 Page 1056 Source: Kimengsi J.N., (2016). Spatial Service Accessibility and livelihood implications in Secondary Towns of Sub-Saharan Africa: The Case of Buea, Cameroon. Research Gate publication at: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/301202319. Police Ranking in Cameroon There are four major grades in the police corp 1. Grade of Constables (GPx) which is written with first school leaving certificate 2. Police inspectors (IPx) which requires ordinary level certificate 3. Assistant superintendent of police (OPx) which requires advanced level certification 4. Superintendent of police (PC) which a bachelors degree Grade of Constables This is the first-grade for police constables (cpx) and it is obtained with Two white V (newly graduated). After three years, the person is upgraded with 2nd grade police constable major grade (Two white v and 1 yellow v (cp2). After 3 years again, the person is upgraded to 3rd grade constable or senior police constable better known in the French acronym as guardian Paix Principale to the post of 3 yellow v (cpp). Thus it requires a police constable 9 years to love to the rank of a police inspector. Then the Inspectors of police with 1 silver star (ip), first grade police inspector better known in the French acronym as Inspector de Premiere Grade. After 4 years he/she is awarded 2 silver stars, (ip2) second grade police inspector principal D4 regional division of health International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development @ www.ijtsrd.com eISSN: 2456-6470 @ IJTSRD | Unique Paper ID – IJTSRD47569 | Volume – 5 | Issue – 6 | Sep-Oct 2021 Page 1057 Organizational Setup of Buea Police Force 3.2. Model Specification Figure 2 The influence of Leadership Styles on Corruption in the Police Sector in Buea, Fako Division of the S.W. Region This section presents a structure of the research variables; given that the study seeks to study the influence of leadership styles on corruption in the police sector in Buea. Emphasis would be on the three independent variables representing police managers’ leadership styles: transformational, transactional and laissez-faire and the dependent variables corruption. 3.3. Research Approach and Design The research adopted a descriptive survey research design with the intention of gathering enough evidence from the state of affairs. According to Ndue (2017:87), the descriptive survey is a method of collecting information by interviewing or administering a questionnaire to a sample of individuals.. It presented opinions of respondents upon which generalization could be made. This study adopted both a qualitative and quantitative research approach. The triangulation approach embodied different study population (police officers and police leaders) and data collection instruments (questionnaire and interview guide); in order to obtain robust findings pertaining to the study. 3.4. Population and Target Population The population of the study consisted of police officers of Buea Police sector and commercial moto drivers operating in the Mile 17 Moto Park. The target population were Police officers in 4 police posts in the Buea Police sector (Buea town, GMI, Central Police and Muea). 3.5. Sample and Sampling Technique A sample of 250 police officers was selected using the random sampling technique and 5driversof different driving categories (Taxi and bus drivers) and were selected purposefully for the interview. Due to the Regional delegation H1: The transformational leadership style H2: The transactional leadership style H4: The measures to be implemented H3: The laissez-faire leadership style Bureaucratic Corruption in the Police Department Assistant regional delegate divisions Central police General Intelligence Regional division of control of service D1 DRG division de ranseiqnement geneteu X (division for general intelligence) D3 regional division of judicial police D2 DRSP division regional de la securite publique (regioal division for public security) International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development @ www.ijtsrd.com eISSN: 2456-6470 @ IJTSRD | Unique Paper ID – IJTSRD47569 | Volume – 5 | Issue – 6 | Sep-Oct 2021 Page 1058 participatory approval needed to conduct this study, the sample was selected using non-probability technique; precisely the convenience sampling technique. The convenience sampling allows a researcher to investigate all subjects who are available at the time of the study and show interest in the study (Ndue, 2017:103). Doing so allowed each officer in the participating agencies the same opportunity to complete the survey and it was expected to yield higher levels of participation than random sampling, in which participation is completely optional for all potential participants. The total number ofpolice officers in each police department under study varies from 50 to 100, and the total number of police officers surveyed was 250. 3.6. Construction of Instrument for Data Collection The data collection instrument used was a structured questionnaire and an interview guide. A questionnaire was preferable because structured questionnaires are extremely flexible and could be used to gather information concerning almost any topic, from a larger or small number of people like the police officers in Buea. Also, according to Fowler (1993), closed-ended questions are better waysto avoid respondents’ biases related to their different perceptions. Additionally, hestates that preparing closed-ended question enable each respondents with the same perceptions related to the questions. Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ, Form 5X). Police officers’ opinions on their leaders’ leadership styles by adopting and modifying Bass and Avolios (2000) Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ, Form 5X). leadership practices are measured by one scale with 13 questions in the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ, Form 5X). This included an examination and analysis of the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ), which is a leadership style instrument that was developed by Bass (1985). The Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ) was described to measure three different types of leadership qualities (transformational, transactional, and laisse-faire) with each displaying its own distinct qualities. The three types of leadership described here comprise what Bass and Riggio (2006) call the Full Range Leadership (FRL) model (Kieres, 2012). This instrument was later modified and adopted by Tombul (2011) to measure the leadership styles (transformational, transactional and laissez-faire leadership styles) in the police sector. Besides, the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire 5X (MLQ-5X) was developed with the specific purpose of measuring effective leadership in military, government, educational, religious, service, and volunteer organizations (Bass & Avolio, 2000). As such, several studies within law enforcement have been conducted utilizing the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire 5X survey, as it has been deemed a valid and reliable measurement tool. This questions examined respondents’ views; using a Five-point scale of Strongly Agree (5), Agree (4), Uncertain or Neutral (3), Disagree (2) Strongly Disagree (1). The questionnaires were divided into four sections. Section A collected basic demographic information regarding the respondents such as gender, age, level of education; Section B collected information on the issues tested. Section B comprised closed-ended questions on the transformational leadership style of police managers, transactional leadership style of police managers and laissez-faire leadership style of police managers; using a (1) Strongly Disagree, (2) Disagree, (3) Neutral, (4) Agree (5) Strongly Agree. The respondents were asked to indicate the extent to which they agreed/disagreed with various statements raised regarding the characteristics of the various leadership styles exhibited in the Police sector in Buea; as Cain (2017:65) posits that these leadership styles are critical to all law enforcement departments. Questionnaires were earlier designed and pretested to see whether they can collect the necessary data to achieve the pre-determined objectives of the study. Meanwhile the instruments were set in simple English and French languages given that although Buea is an English base area, police officers from French parts of the country are equally posted in this area. This language was clear to ensure that any ordinary law enforcement officer could answer without any confusion. 3.7. Interview Guide The interview guide was equally employed because of the necessity to gather more in-depth views of drivers who are deemed to be closely related to the police especially on daily basis. Interviews provide contexts where drivers could explain their experiences pertaining to the state of police corruption in the area viz a viz their relations with them on daily basis. They were asked to, elaborate on ideas, and explain perspectives in their own words (Kendall, 2008). This qualitative tool was used to obtain expanded opinions on the experiences of this group of people as a representative of the state of corruption from police officers and how it is linked to their leadership. The interview guide was self-developed from the literature review. Both results were found to constitute robust findings for this study.