professional bartender

Feb 19, 2018 | Publisher: edocr | Category: Food & Dining |  | Collection: Recipes | Views: 19 | Likes: 1

The Professional Bartender's Handbook A Recipe for Every Drink Known- Including Tricks and Games to Impress Your Guests By Valerie Mellema Table of Contents THE PROFESSIONAL BARTENDER'S HANDBOOK.............................................. 1 A RECIPE FOR EVERY DRINK KNOWN- ................................................................ 1 INCLUDING TRICKS AND GAMES TO IMPRESS YOUR GUESTS .................... 1 BY VALERIE MELLEMA.............................................................................................. 1 TABLE OF CONTENTS ................................................................................................. 2 INTRODUCTION............................................................................................................. 4 CHAPTER 1 ...................................................................................................................... 5 ALL ABOUT LIQUOR, BEER AND WINE ............................................................................ 5 LIQUORS .......................................................................................................................... 5 Bourbon....................................................................................................................... 5 Whiskey ....................................................................................................................... 7 Gin............................................................................................................................. 11 Rum ........................................................................................................................... 13 Scotch Whisky ........................................................................................................... 15 Tequila & Mezcal...................................................................................................... 17 Vodka ........................................................................................................................ 19 Brandy....................................................................................................................... 22 Storage ...................................................................................................................... 24 Cognac and Armagnac ............................................................................................. 24 Armagnac.................................................................................................................. 26 Aperitifs, Cordials & Liqueurs ................................................................................. 27 BEER .............................................................................................................................. 33 WINE ............................................................................................................................. 35 Wine History ............................................................................................................. 36 Wine Production ....................................................................................................... 36 Aging Wines .............................................................................................................. 37 Wine Storage............................................................................................................. 38 French Wine.............................................................................................................. 39 Wine Presentation..................................................................................................... 40 Wine and Food Pairings ........................................................................................... 41 Wine and Cheese Pairings ........................................................................................ 42 How to Taste Wine .................................................................................................... 43 Wine Glasses............................................................................................................. 43 Merlot........................................................................................................................ 44 Chardonnay............................................................................................................... 45 Cabernet Sauvignon.................................................................................................. 46 Zinfandel and White Zinfandel.................................................................................. 47 Sparkling Wines and Champagne............................................................................. 48 Shiraz ........................................................................................................................ 49 Rieslings.................................................................................................................... 49 Pinot Noir.................................................................................................................. 50 Pinot Gris (Pinot Grigio).......................................................................................... 51 Sauvignon Blanc ....................................................................................................... 52 Chablis ...................................................................................................................... 52 Valpolicella ............................................................................................................... 53 Sherry Wines ............................................................................................................. 54 Port Wines................................................................................................................. 55 Vermouth................................................................................................................... 56 CHAPTER 2 ..................................................... ERROR! BOOKMARK NOT DEFINED. SETTING UP YOUR BAR ........................................... ERROR! BOOKMARK NOT DEFINED. CHAPTER 3 ..................................................... ERROR! BOOKMARK NOT DEFINED. TOOLS OF THE TRADE .............................................. ERROR! BOOKMARK NOT DEFINED. CHAPTER 4 ..................................................... ERROR! BOOKMARK NOT DEFINED. BAR MANAGEMENT ................................................. ERROR! BOOKMARK NOT DEFINED. CHAPTER 5 ..................................................... ERROR! BOOKMARK NOT DEFINED. 15,000+ DRINK RECIPES.......................................... ERROR! BOOKMARK NOT DEFINED. CHAPTER 6 ..................................................... ERROR! BOOKMARK NOT DEFINED. NON-ALCOHOLIC DRINK RECIPES ........................... ERROR! BOOKMARK NOT DEFINED. CHAPTER 7 ..................................................... ERROR! BOOKMARK NOT DEFINED. BAR ADD-ONS ......................................................... ERROR! BOOKMARK NOT DEFINED. CHAPTER 8 ..................................................... ERROR! BOOKMARK NOT DEFINED. GAMES, TRICKS & TOASTS...................................... ERROR! BOOKMARK NOT DEFINED. GLOSSARY...................................................... ERROR! BOOKMARK NOT DEFINED. BIBLIOGRAPHY & REFERENCE INFORMATION .. ERROR! BOOKMARK NOT DEFINED. Introduction The bartender is an American icon, they represent the one individual that you can open yourself up to know matter how bad life has got you down. And if you're not down, the bartender is there to make the party even better! The bartender knows everything about what is going on in town and what there is to do in the city. The bartender knows the best places to eat and the best places sleep. They can even prescribe the best drink for your occasion or the best one to drown your sorrows. As a bartender, it is important that you are able to maintain the stature of the American bartender. No matter what corny name they might call you; you are there for your customers. You want to do your best at providing the best service you are capable of and you want to be sure that you remember the names of those who come in on a regular basis. Your customers will greatly appreciate this and it will guarantee that they will return. Being a master mixologist is something that will come to you over time. You will begin to discover new ways of creating the same drink. You may also discover that a Cosmopolitan the lady at the end of the bar likes, maybe a little different than the Cosmo the lady at the table likes. You will begin to discover the intricacies of bartending at your bar and what the clients of your bar like. As long as you are able to make an excellent drink that suits the taste of your clientele. The key to being a successful bartender is knowing what you have stocked in your bar. From beer to wine to liquors know them all. Know the differences between whiskey, bourbon and scotch. Your knowledge will impress your customers and they will think you are a bartending genius. The other key to being a successful bartender is having fun; no matter how fast the "weeds" are gaining on you. Keep a level head and crank out the best drinks as fast as you can. Customers won't care how long their drink takes as long as it tastes great, they will understand how busy you are as long as their drink is excellent. Bartenders these days also have to be very responsible. Keep an eye on all of your guests. You don't want anybody driving drunk, because if they get caught or get in a wreck, it will come back to you in the end. Devise a system that you, your fellow bartenders and your bar manager will understand so that they can help you monitor your guests. Let them have fun, but they make them stay responsible. Chapter 1 All About Liquor, Beer and Wine Liquors Bourbon Bourbon is one of the most popular liquors in a bar. You will want to offer several different varieties and brands of bourbon, as people will request numerous types of them. Bourbon is generally known as the "king of American whiskey," and has distinct flavor. The main ingredient in bourbon is corn. The corn gives this liquor its distinct flavor, along with the charred oak casks that bourbon is aged in. Bourbon has a long history that began with Bourbon County Whiskey in 1789 by Reverend Elijah Craig of Georgetown, Kentucky. In 1791, the government began introducing taxes on the distillers of Pennsylvania. In the Whiskey Rebellion, the distillers fled Pennsylvania to the Appalachians of Kentucky. Here the bourbon was born through the use of excellent Kentucky corn and pristine water, which is the most important factor in any type of whiskey. There are two types of stills used in liquor production. The pot still resembles a tunnel and has a large bowlike base with a tall and tapering tower. The vapors from the liquid travel through the tower and through a spiral tube that is surrounded by cold water. The temperature of the water condenses the vapors into liquor. This still produces a more flavorful product, but it is not as efficient as the continuous still. The continuous still is made of two parts called a rectifier and an analyzer. Both parts are wide and tall tubes. They fill with steam and the liquid that is being distilled enters a pipe that travels down the rectifier part of the still. The liquid is heated by the steam almost to boiling when the liquid reaches the analyzer. The analyzer is basically just a tank of steam. The alcohol is immediately vaporized and is channeled with steam and back into the base of the rectifier. This liquid then mixes with the steam again and brings more liquid up to be distilled. About two-thirds through the rectifier, the vapors hit a cold plate that condenses them to liquor and the liquor is then channeled out of the rectifier and diluted with water. The process begins again. Bourbon is distilled from at least fifty-one percent corn. Bourbon is distilled through the continuous still. The bourbon is then aged in charred virgin oak casks. The casks are only used once and then they are either destroyed or sold to Scotch distillers. The Scotch distillers use the casks for aging their single-malt Scotch. There are two types of bourbon. There is sour mash bourbon and Southern Comfort. Sour mash bourbon incorporates the "sour" mash from the first batch of bourbon that was distilled. This mash is incorporated with the new mash mix and the resulting wort is allowed to ferment for three to four days before it is distilled. The wort is the remaining liquid from the grist that is strained from the mash. Southern Comfort is a type of very popular bourbon. Many people associate Southern Comfort with bourbon. The history of Southern Comfort began with a cocktail known as Cuffs and Buttons. This drink incorporated bourbon with marinated peaches. A bartender in Missouri changed the name of the drink to Southern Comfort. He later began marketing the product Southern Comfort. The bourbon is blended with peach liqueur and makes a better tasting product for those individuals who do not care for straight bourbon. Popular Bourbons Blanton's Single Barrel Bourbon o Variety of proofs and ages Baker's o Aged 7 years, 107 proof Basil Hayden o Aged 7 years, 80 proof Booker's Bourbon o Variety of proofs and ages Distillers' Masterpiece o 18 & 20 year old versions o 18 year old version is finished in cognac casks o 20 year old version is finished in Geyser Peak port wine casks Elijah Craig Bourbon o Aged 12 years, 94 proof Evan Williams Black Label Kentucky Straight Bourbon Whiskey o Aged 7 years, 86 proof Evan Williams Single Barrel Vintage Kentucky Straight Bourbon Whiskey o Vintage dated, 86.6 proof I.W. Harper Kentucky Straight Bourbon Whiskey o 86 proof o Rare and hard to find Jim Beam o Aged 4 years, 80 proof o Jim Beam Choice: Aged 5 years, 80 proof o Beam Black Label: Aged 8 years, 90 proof Jim Beam Black o Aged 8 years, 86 proof Knob Creek o Aged 9 years, 100 proof Old Charter Kentucky Straight Bourbon Whiskey o Aged 8 years, 80 proof o Aged 10 years, 86 proof o The Classic: Aged 12 years, 90 proof o Proprietor's Reserve: Aged 13 years, 90 proof Old Crow Bourbon o Aged 3 years, 80 proof Old Fitzgerald Kentucky Straight Bourbon Whiskey o 86 & 90 proof o Very Special Old Fitzgerald (Bourbon Heritage Collection): Aged 8 years, 100 proof Limited distribution Old Grand Dad o 86 proof o Bottled in Bond: 100 proof o 114 Barrel Proof Wild Turkey o 80 proof o Wild Turkey Rare Breed: Blend of 6, 8 & 12 year old stocks, 108 proof o Wild Turkey Old Number 8 Brand: 101 proof o Kentucky Spirit: 101 proof Woodford Reserve o Aged 7 years, 90.4 proof Storage Bourbon should be stored at room temperature. After opening, bourbon has a shelf life of about two years. Whiskey There are several types of whiskey including Canadian Whiskey, American Whiskey and Irish Whiskey. Whiskey is produced from grains. The types and quantities of the grains that are used helps to determine the flavor of the whiskey. Whiskeys can also be blended with other types of whiskeys to produce a more complex flavor. American whiskey alone has several different types. There are sour mash whiskeys, wheat, Tennessee, rye, corn, malt, rye malt and bourbon. Yes, to add to the confusion, whiskey and bourbon are essentially the same thing, except bourbon is always made from corn. Sour mash whiskey is the same as sour mash bourbon. All whiskey is distilled in the same fashion. The grain is ground into grist. The grist is mixed with water and is cooked to release the starch. Malt is then added to the mix, as it converts starch into sugar. The grist is strained from the mixture and the remaining liquid is called "wort." The wort is fed to years and is fermented. The result is beer. This beer is then distilled in one of the two types of stills, the pot still or the continuous still. The whiskey is then watered down to around one hundred proof or fifty percent alcohol. The whiskey is then aged. The type of whiskey determines the type of barrels American Whiskey American whiskey is believed to have first been produced during the Revolutionary war. American whiskey was made from rye and barley, as these were very abundant during this era. As people began moving west, they began using corn to make whiskey. American whiskey is usually aged in charred oak barrels. Straight Whiskey Straight whiskey is distilled from fifty-one percent of one type of grain. There are several types of straight whiskey that has been distilled from various grains including rye, corn, malt, malted rye, and wheat. Blended Whiskey Forty-seven percent of whiskeys are blended. This means that they incorporate various types of grain with forty-seven percent being a single type of grain. Blended whiskey may also be blended with prune or peach juice and even sherry. They are also blended with a grain spirit that has been aged in oak barrels. Popular Brands Barton Reserve Carstairs Imperial Fleishmann's Mattingly & Moore Light Whiskey Light whiskey is made from a high percentage of corn. This whiskey is not aged in charred or previously used casks. Rye Whiskey Rye whiskey is fifty-one percent rye. There are also blended ryes that contain neutral grain spirit or other types of whiskeys. Popular Brands Old Overholt o Aged 4 years, 80 proof Jim Beam Rye o 80 proof Wild Turkey Rye o 80 proof Tennessee Whiskey Tennessee whiskey is made in Tennessee. This whiskey is also made from at least fifty- one percent of a single grain. Corn is usually the most common grain that is used. Popular Brands George Dickel Tennessee Whiskey o Old No. 8 Brand: 80 proof o Old No. 12 Superior Brand: 90 proof o Barrel Reserve: Aged 10 years, 86 proof Jack Daniel's Tennessee Sour Mash Whiskey o Black Label: 86 proof o Green Label: 80 proof o Gentleman Jack: 80 proof (Available only in the U.S.) Corn Whiskey Corn whiskey must be made from at least eighty-percent corn and is aged in used or charred oak casks. Wheat, Malt and Malted Rye Whiskey All of these whiskeys must contain at least fifty-one percent of wheat, barley malt, malt or malted rye. Canadian Whiskey Canadian whiskey is produced from the cereal grains of corn, wheat, rye or barley. The percentages of grain vary according to different distillers. All imported Canadian whiskeys are marked as blended in the United States because the Canadian government doesn't mandate specific percentages of grain. Popular Brands Black Velvet o Aged 3 years, 80 proof Canadian Club o Aged 6 years, 80 proof Canadian Mist o Aged 3 years, 80 proof Crown Royal o 80 proof Seagram's V.O. o Aged 6 years, 86 proof o V.O. means "Very Own" or "Very Old" Tangle Ridge o Aged 10 years, 100 percent rye whiskey o Aged in oak barrels o Blended with Sherry and other natural flavors o Recased before bottling Irish Whiskey Irish whiskey is blended similarly to Scotch. The main difference in Irish whiskey is that they distill the whiskey three times in a pot still. This causes the whiskey to be sweeter than Scotch and it is usually blended with whiskey from a continuous skill. Single-malt Irish whiskey is made from malted barley, however, the whiskey that is blended with Irish whiskey can be made from unmalted barley, rye, corn, wheat or oats. Irish whiskey is also aged for a minimum of five years in used sherry casks. Popular Brands Bushmills o Busmills Premium o Black Rush Special o Bushmills Single Malt 10 years old o Bushmills Rare Single Irish Malt 16 years old o Single Malt Irish Whiskey 21 years old Connemara o Pot Still Peated Single Malt Irish Whiskey Only peated single malt whiskey in the market Jameson Irish Whiskey o World's largest selling Irish Whiskey o Aged 12 years o Made with pure Irish water and malted and unmalted Irish barley o Jameson Gold Aged 8 to 20 years Rare blend of Irish whiskeys Kilbeggan o Gaelic for "little church" o First licensed whiskey distillery in the world established in the town of Kilbeggan in 1757 Knappogue Castle Irish Single Malt Whiskey o Pot stilled o Malted barley o Vintage basis only Midleton o Very rare Irish Whiskey o Aged 12 to 21 years in Bourbon-seasoned American Oak casks Paddy Powers Tullamore Dew The Tyrconnell o Single Malt Irish Whiskey o Pure malted barley produced at single distillery Storage Whiskey should be stored at room temperature. After opening, whiskey has a shelf life of about two years. Gin Gin was developed in the seventeenth century. The word gin comes from the Dutch word for juniper, which is also what gin smells like. Gin was developed by a Dutch doctor who blended alcohol with the juniper berry. He developed the concoction for patients with kidney ailments; although, it has been shown that gin does nothing for the kidneys. The drink became popular in England when William III who married Mary II and became the King of England in 1689. William was a Dutchmen with a grudge against the French. He raised the taxes on the French wines and brandies, which made the cheapest liquor Gin. The English began to buy Gin in bulk quantities and soon learned to make it themselves. Gin also became popular amongst the poor of English. The liquor began to have bad connotations throughout history, but has regained its popularity. There are several different types of gins available. Gin is produced by infusing the juniper berry with a neutral grain spirit. The spirit is made in a continuous still. The wort is produced by various grains including corn and malted barley; it may also contain another type of grain as well. The infusion of the juniper berry is produced by distilling the spirit with the flavorings of the juniper berry in the pot still. Dry Gin The majority of gin is dry gin as it contains coriander seed. There are several other flavorings that may be used as well including fennel, calamus root, orris root, angelica root, almond, cardamom, cassia, ginger, cinnamon, caraway seeds, licorice, orange peels and lemon peels. There are also several botanicals that are used in the distillation process of gin. These botanicals are suspended at the top of the still. The spirit is then redistilled to absorb the flavors. Because dry gin is distilled twice, the gin requires more botanicals for the highly flavored liquor that is produced. Dutch Gin Dutch Gin is also known as "Hollands Gin" or "Genever Gin." This gin is made by infusing juniper and some botanicals into a malt wine. The malt wine is made form malted barley, corn and rye. The grains are boiled and the wort is fermented for a few days. The liquor is then distilled in a pot still. The liquor may be distilled twice with botanicals in a different still. Some Dutch gins also have a coloring that is added to them at the end of the distillation process. Old Tom This is a gin that was produced in England. This gin is believed to be the gin that was used to make the original Tom Collins. This gin is rarely produced any more but it has a great story behind it. If you can remember a story about a product that you carry, your customers will eat it up. The story is that Old Tom gin was first distilled in the eighteenth century by Captain Dudley Broadsheet. He used a sign with a carving of a tomcat for his store sign. The buyer of the gin would place their money in the cat's mouth and hold their bottle under their leg and he would dispense the appropriate amount of gin into their bottle. Plymouth Gin Plymouth gin is produced by one distiller only and is considered the traditional gin of the British Navy. The gin is completely unsweetened. Flavored Gin Flavored gins are relatively new products. They are gin that has had natural flavorings such as lime, lemon or orange added to them. The bottles are clearly marked as to what flavor the gin is. Popular Gins: Beefeater o Only premium dry gin distillery in London o Beefeater WET: 70 proof, lighter tasting gin made with pear Bombay o Recipe is secrete and dates back to 1761 o Bombay Sapphire: More natural botanicals than any other gin Gordon's o First distilled 225 years ago in London o Unsweetened gin with smooth character and aromas o Known as "London Dry" Hendricks o Scottish gin o Incorporates juniper, coriander, rose petal, citrus, and cucumber Magelian Gin o French gin o Made in small batches with exotic botanicals Seagram's Extra Dry o Golden gin o Citrus flavors Tanqueray o Known for green fire hydrant shaped bottle o Tanqueray 10 Super premium Tanqueray Blended with fresh botanicals, including grapefruit and camomile Distilled four times Storage Store unopened bottles in cool and dry places. After opening, the bottle should have a shelf life of two years. Rum Rum is distilled from sugar cane. You can buy gin in both the light and dark varieties. Rum has been exported out of the Caribbean for hundreds of years. Christopher Columbus brought the first sugar cane to the Caribbean from Azores. Rum may have been produced even before Columbus, approximately two thousand years ago. Sugar cane was originally grown in southern China and India. Alexander the Great brought the sugar cane to Egypt. The Saracens begun distilling sugar cane and passed their knowledge on to the Moors. The Moors began making arak in Europe around 636 A.D. In 1943, Columbus brought sugar cane with him to Puerto Rico on his second voyage. Ponce de Leon also brought sugar cane to Puerto Rico and planted several fields. The islands soon became the main producers of sugar cane and began producing rum, which would soon become an important factor in global economics. In 1524, Puerto Rico opened the first sugar mill. The culture called their cane distillation product brebaje. The English soon named it rum. Rum became very popular in the 19th century and Puerto Rico prospered from their distilleries. The first column still was introduced into Puerto Rico in 1893 and laid the foundation for more refined rum. The first export of rum in 1897 was shipped to the United States. The export consisted of approximately 18,000 gallons. Prohibition didn't harm the Puerto Rican rum industry at all. In fact, they began producing industrial alcohol during prohibition in order to stay afloat. With the end of Prohibition in 1934, Puerto Rican Rum came back into the United States. The country also began refining their process even more. During World War II, U.S. rum distilleries produced industrial alcohol to keep up with the demands of the war. The sale of Puerto Rican rum also increased, as Coca-Cola was the national drink during the war. By 1952, 100 brands of Puerto Rican rum were on the U.S. market. Today, Puerto Rican rum is still leading in sales in the United States with about twelve different brands. Rum is distilled from molasses. The syrup is produced by boiling down sugar cane. Crude rum is around 130 and 180 proofs. Rum is aged two to ten years and the aging process determines the type of rum that is produced. Dark rum is produced by charred oak casks and caramel is often added to it in order to change the color. Rum that is aged in stainless steel casks remains colorless. The majority of dark rum is produced in Jamaica, Haiti and Martinique. Rum that is aged for a year produces light-bodied, dry rum. Amber and golden rums are aged for at least three years and have caramel added to them for color. Rum that is aged over six years is vieux or liqueur. Virgin Islands Rum The Virgin Islands produces dry, light bodied rum. Demeraran Rum This rum is produced in Guyana. The rum is very dark and has a medium body. Bottled with at a very high alcohol content- 151 proof. This rum is traditionally used in a Zombie. Jamaican Rum Produced from molasses and is generally full-bodied. The rum ferments for three weeks and is distilled in pot stills and aged in oak casks for at least five years. The color is produced by the addition of caramel. Martinique and Haitian Rum Distilled from the juice of the sugar cane and is concentrated and distilled in pot stills. The rum is aged in oak casks, which provides the rum's color. Batavia Arak This rum is an aromatic rum and produced on the island of Java. Molasses is placed in Javanese red rice and allowed to ferment. The rum is aged for three years in Java and shipped to Holland. The rum is aged for up to six years and is then blended and bottled. Aguardiente de Cana This is the name of most South American rums. Popular Brands Angostura- Trinidad Appleton Estate- Jamaica Bacardi- Puerto Rico Captain Morgan Original Spiced Rum- Puerto Rico Cruzan Rum- U.S. Virgin Islands Don Q Rums- Puerto Rico Fernandes "19" Rum- Trinidad Gosling's Black Seal Rum- Bermuda Havana Club- Cuba Matusalem- Dominican Republic Mount Gay Rum- Barbados Myers's Original Dark Rum-Jamaica Ocumare- Venezuela Pampero- Venezuela Pusser's- Tortola Ron Del Barrilito- Puerto Rico Royal Oak- Trinidad Rhum Barbancourt- Haiti Sea Wynde- Australia Whaler's- Hawaii Popular Flavored Rum Bacardi o Bacardi Ciclon 90% Bacardi Gold and 10% blue agave tequila, hint of lime o Bacardi Limon Lemon o Bacardi Tropico Bacardi Gold mixed with exotic fruit juices o Bacardi O Bacardi rum with the essence of ripe oranges o Bacardi Razz Raspberry o Bacardi Vanilla o Bacardi Coco Coconut Cruzan Rum o Coconut, Orange, Pineapple, Banana, Vanilla, citrus "Junkanu" Whaler's o Coconut, Vanilla, and Spiced Cocoribe o Coconut Captain Morgan o Spiced o Captain Morgan's Parrot Bay Coconut Malibu o Coconut Storage Store unopened bottles in cool and dry places. After opening, the bottle should have a shelf life of two years. Scotch Whisky Scotch must be distilled in Scotland to be considered Scotch. They may be bottled in other countries, but they must be distilled in Scotland. There are two types of Scotch. They can be either malt whiskey and is made from barley or grain whisky that is made from cereals. Malt whiskies are divided into four categories depending on where they are distilled. Lowland malt whiskies are made south from Dundee and east of Greenock. The highland malt whisky is made north of the Lowland malt whisky. Speyside malt whisky is made in the valley of the River Spey. The area is in the Highland malt whisky area, but there are several distilleries in this area and there are drastically different climatic conditions in the area. These whiskies produce a character that unlike any other Scotches. Scotch is also made on the island of Islay and is called Islay malt whisky. Each area has its own distinctive flavors and characteristics. The Lowland whiskies are lightly flavored, as the Islay whiskies are very heavy malt whiskies. There are several grain distilleries that can be found in the central are of Scotland near Glasgow and Edinburgh. The single grain whiskies have individual characterizes but are not influenced by the geography as the malt whiskies are. Blended Scotch is made with both malt whisky and grain whisky. Blended Scotches account for ninety-five percent of the Scotch sales in the world. Single malt Scotch Whisky is made from one type of malt and not blended with other malts or grains. Friar John Cor produced Scotch as early as 1494. All Scotches were made as single-malt Scotches. Andrew Usher invented the process of the blended Scotch. There are about fifty different types of blended Scotch whiskies. There are four steps to making Scotch. The first stage is malting the barley. The barley is soaked and dried before germination where the starch in the barley converts into fermentable sugar. The malted barley is smoked over peat fires in open malt kilns to stop the germination. This is why Scotch whisky has a smoky taste. The malted barley is then mixed with yeast and water. The mixture is allowed to ferment and alcohol is produced. The liquid is then transported into stills and double distilled until the mixture is the correct proof. After the liquid is distilled, the whisky is then placed in American oak wine or bourbon barrels and aged for a minimum of three years. The Scotch must be aged for a three years by law. The Scotch is allowed to age for five to ten years or longer. The longer the Scotch ages, the smoother the Scotch becomes. Popular Blended Scotch Whiskies Ballantine Chivas Regal Cutty Sark Dewar's Glenlivet Grant's Johnny Walker Justerini & Brooks or "J&B" Teacher's The Famous Grouse Vat 69 Popular Single-Malt Scotch Aberlour Balvenie Bowmore Dalmore Single Highland Malt Glenfiddich Glenlivet Glenmorangie Glenrothes Laphroaig Lagaulin Macallan Oban Old Stillman's Dram Pig Nose Sheep Dip Talisker Storage Store unopened bottles in cool and dry places. After opening, the bottle should have a shelf life of two years. Tequila & Mezcal Tequila can be attributed to the Aztecs in early 1000 A.D. They produced a milky drink called pulque, the drink was produce from the agave plant as well. Governed by Mexican law since the 17th century, tequila is produced in Tequila, Mexico. The area is in the state of Jaliso and the climate is dry with volcanic soil. The state is located in the foothills of the Sierra Madre. The juice that runs off the plant is called the aguamiel. The juice is mixed with sugar and yeast. The mixture is then fermented for two to three days. The juice is then double distilled in copper pot stills until the juice is 90 proof or higher. The final product must contain at least 51% distillate from the blue agave. Popular Types of Tequila Tequila Blanco o White, Silver and Platinum o Comes fresh from the still and has demineralized water added Tequila Joven Abocado o Gold o Produced as silver tequila with colorings and flavors added Tequila Reposado o "Rested" tequila o Aged for two months to a year in oak tanks or barrels o Flavors and colors may be added o Demineralized water brings the liquid down to commercial proof Anejo o Aged tequila o Aged for at least one year in government sealed oak barrels o Flavors and colors may be added o Demineralized water brings the liquid down to commercial proof o When tequilas are blended, the youngest age is noted on the label Popular Tequila Brands Chinaco o Ultra-premium tequila Corazon de Agave o Ultra-premium tequila o Made in Jalisco, Mexico El Tersoro de Don Felipe o Estate grown blue agave plants o Bottled without adding water Herradura o Spanish for "horseshoe" o Available in Anejo, Reposado Gold, and Silver Jose Cuervo o World's oldest and largest tequila maker o Oldest spirit company in North America o Available in Blanco, Especial, Centenario, and 1800 Patron o Available in Silver and Anejo o 100% blue agave Pepe Lopez o Available in Oro (gold) or Superior Silver (white) Sauza o First tequila exported to the United States o Available in Silver, Extra Gold, Hornitos, Commemorativo, and Tres Generaciones Two Fingers o Available in Gold, Limitado, and White o Named after a bandit from Guadalajara who only had two fingers, his thumb and his index finger on his right hand Mezcal is made from the agave plant with a different process than Tequila. Mezcal is made exclusively in Oaxaca. The drink has a high potency and smoky flavor. Many believe that the drink also has medicinal purposes. The tribal women drink Mezcal to withstand childbirth, as the drink is stronger than Tequila. Laborers drink Mezcal for strength. The Spaniards experimented with the agave plant to make a stronger drink than Tequila. Worms live in the agave plant and are harvested during the rainy summers of Tequila. The worms are stored in Mezcal. They are then drained and sorted and placed in the bottles. The worm is a symbol of the agave plant. There are many legends that state that the worm gives strength to the brave soul that gulps it down. Legend also states that the worm is an aphrodisiac. Both the drink and the worm are an acquired taste. Popular Brands of Mezcal Gusano Rojo Mezcal Miguel de la Mezcal Monte Alban Storage Store unopened bottles in cool and dry places. Even after opening, the bottles of both tequila and mezcal will last for many years. Vodka Vodka is the national liquor of Russia and other Slavic countries. Both Russia and Poland claim to have invented vodka. Vodka is a clear and flavorless liquor, which has been produced in these countries for over 600 years. The word comes from the word voda meaning "water" and in this case "little water." The drink is easily recognized by its lack of smell, color and taste. Vodka has been mentioned in Russian history as early as the twelfth century. At that point in history, vodka was used to describe any spirit at the time. Vodka, as we know it, was concocted in fourteenth century Russia. Vodka arrived in the United States in the 1930's with the Smirnoff family. They began producing vodka as the Russian czar had banned vodka at the beginning of World War I. Vodka has many rituals and tradition associated with it from Russian culture. Everyone has seen the smashing of the glasses in the fireplace; this was done to ensure that the toast would come true. The production of vodka is a simple one, as the drink can be produced from a variety of different plants. The Turks used beets and the British use molasses. The majority of vodka is produced by potatoes, wheat and corn. The liquid is distilled at a very high alcohol content and is filtered through vegetable charcoal. The better vodkas on the market have been filtered with activated charcoal and fine quartz sand. Gold Vodka Gold vodka is called Starka. The vodka is aged in wine casks for about ten years. Pepper Vodka This drink is known as Pertsovka and is infused with cubeb, cayenne and capsicum. The vodka was invented by the Czar Peter the Great, as he enjoyed pepper in his vodka. Yubileyneya Osobaya This is another classic flavored vodka. The vodka has honey and brandy added. Okhotnichya These vodkas are infused with a collection of herbs. Flavored Vodkas Flavored vodkas are becoming increasingly popular. They are made with a variety of natural flavorings. There are approximately thirty different flavors of vodka and more are introduced every year. Flavored Vodkas Absolut Citron Absolut Kurant Absolut Peppar Absolut Vanilla Finlandia Cranberry Finlandia Lime Finlandia Pineapple Gordon's Citrus Gordon's Wildberry o Blend of berries Okhotnichya o Honey and herbs Raspberry VOX SKYY Berry SKYY Citrus SKYY Spiced SKYY Vanilla Smirnoff Twist o Green Apple o Citrus o Vanilla o Orange o Raspberry Stoli Citros Stoli Cranberi Stoli Oharnj Stoli Peach Stoli Razberi Stoli Strasberi Stoli Vanil Popular Vodka Brands Absolut o Swedish o Number one imported vodka in the United States Belvedere o Poland Boru o Ireland o Made from grain and pure Irish water Ciroc o France o Made from snap-frost grapes o Distilled five times Finlandia o Finland o Made from spring water and barley Fris o Scandinavia Glibey's o American Vodka Glacier o Distilled Rigby, Idaho o Made from Idaho potatoes and Rocky Mountain water Grey Goose o France o Made from grain and mineral water filtered with champagne limestone Gordon's o Distilled in the United States since 1957 Ketel One o Holland o Made in small batches o Made according to a secret family recipe over 300 years old Kremlyovskaya o Made in Vladimir Region of Russia Luksusowa o Poland o Original Potato vodka Pearl o Made from Canadian Rocky Mountain Spring Water o Distilled from Canadian winter wheat SKYY o American vodka from 100% pure mountain water Smirnoff o Made in the United States o Largest selling vodka in the world Stolichnaya o Russian Vodka o Known as "Stoli" Tanqueray Sterling o English Vodka o From the maker's of Tanqueray Gin Thor's Hammer o Sweden Three Olives Vodka o England Vincent Van Gogh Vodka o Holland o Hand-crafted and made in small batches and from fine grains VOX o Netherlands o Made from 100% wheat o Distilled 5 times Wyborowa o Poland Storage Vodka should be stored in either the freezer or refrigerator. Vodka has high alcohol content and will not freeze. A refrigerated bottle of vodka or one that is stored in a cool, dry place will have a shelf life of at least three years. Brandy Many countries that produce wine also produce Brandy. The liquor is made by distilling wine or fruit, then allowing it to age in oak barrels. Brandies will differ from country to country. Their flavors and style will vary depending on soils, climate, grapes, the distillation process and blending. The process of making brandy is quite simple. The grapes are first fermented, then the liquid is distilled, the brandy is aged in oak barrels and then is blended. The blending will help to give each brandy its own unique style. There are also several methods of producing Brandy. The alambic method is a Brandy that is produced through a batch process and is distilled in a pot still instead of the continuous columns still. The solera method is a method that uses three different aging processes. The wine spirit is blended and placed in barrels for many months. Half the brandy in each barrel is blended with another barrel that contains older brandy. The other half of that barrel is placed in another barrel containing even older brandy. American Brandy Spanish missionaries brought Brandy to California over 200 years ago. The climate, soil and water in California were perfect for making Brandy, especially in the San Joaquin Valley. This area produces the largest amount of American Brandy. California Brandy is aged at least two years. Popular American Brandies: Carneros Alambic o The first alambic brandy made in California Christian Brothers o Processed and aged in Napa Valley E&J Gallo o Produce E&J Brandy Gold o E&J V.S.O.P. Brandy o E&J White Brandy Fermain-Robin o Produced in California Korbel o From the Korbel Distillery in California International Brandies: Asalt Uralt o Germany Aztec DeOro o 12 year old brandy made using the solera method o Mexico Carols I o Spain Don Pedro o Mexico Fellipe II o Spain Metaxa o Greece Presidente o Mexico Stock 84 o Italy Fruit Brandy Many different fruit can be used to make brandy. The process entails washing and mashing the fruit. Water and yeast are added and allowed to ferment. After the sugar is metabolized, the mash is pressed. The liquid from the mash is the distilled. Some fruit brandies are aged in oak barrels. There are many fruit flavored brandies are classified as cordials. These are usually over 70 proof. Sugar, natural colorings, and other flavors are usually added. Flavors include apricots, bananas, coffee and peaches. Popular Fruit Brandies: Applejack o An apple brandy produced in the United States Calvados o An apple brandy made from a variety of apples o Made in Northwestern France Framboise o Made from raspberries Kirsche o Made from cherries Poire o Made from pears o Made in Switzerland and France Slivovitz o Made from plums o Germany and Hungary Storage Store unopened bottles out of sunlight. Brandies can last up to three years and does not age in the bottle. Cognac and Armagnac Cognac and Armagnac are both types of brandies. Both are named after their regions of production, much like the wines of France. Cognac can only be produced legally in the Cognac region of France. The region also straddles the line between the northern and southern climates of France. The region is also located between the Atlantic and Massif Central. These four climates have a significant impact on the production of the Cognac. Cognac is made through an arduous and traditional process. The process began in the 17th century and is still used today. The French government has passed a law that brandy can only produce in the "delimited area" surrounding the town of Cognac. The process of distillation begins with the brouillis. This is the first distillate and is obtained with an alcoholic strength of between 28 to 32 percent. The brouillis is then returned to the boiler for another heating. This produces a liquid known as la bonne chauffe. In this second distillation, the beginning and the end of the distillation are discarded. The heart of the liquid becomes the cognac. After this distillation process, the cognac is then aged in oak casks made from specific oak wood in the Limousin and Trocais forests. The brandy matures slowly and is aged for many years in cellars. A portion of this cognac evaporates as the liquor sits in the casks. Millions of bottles are lost every year and therefore the prices are raised to compensate for this loss. There is no way to stop the evaporation and the producers often refer to the lost cognac as "the angels' share." The wood of the casks and the dark cellars help to develop the aroma and flavors of the cognac. The cognac is aged for at least thirty months. Cognac labels have many different designations that are on the labels of the bottles. These designations refer to the age of the cognac. Every major brand produces cognacs that have been aged for different amounts of time. The age marked on the labels is the age of the youngest cognac that was blended in the mix. V.S. (Very Superior) or Three Stars: aged less than 4 years V.S.O.P. (Very Special Old Pale): aged between 4 and 6 years. X.O. (Extremely Old), Napoleon, Hors d'age, V.S.S.O.P., Cordon Bleu, Grand Reserve and Royal: aged 5 years and up to 40 years. Grand Fine Champagne or Grande Champagne: Identifies cognacs made exclusively from grapes grown in the Grande Champagne region of Cognac, France. Petite Fine Champagne or Petite Champagne: Identifies cognacs made from grapes grown in the Grande Champagne and Petite Champagne regions of Cognac, France. Fine cognac, grande fine, extra old (E.O.), and very old pale (V.O.P.) are not officially recognized by French Law or the Bureau du Cognac. The Bureau du Cognac decides all of the rules and names for cognac. Vintage labels are also not allowed on bottles of cognac as well. Cognacs are produced in the same area; they tend to have very different aromas and flavors from the next. Those individuals who enjoy cognac will find that they will enjoy trying several different types of cognacs. Some cognacs have the flavor of grapes while others taste like vanilla. Popular brands of Cognac Alize o V.S. o V.S.O.P. Courvoisier o V.S. o V.S.O.P. o Napoleon o Initiale Extra X.O. o Imperial o Succession J.L., an old and rare Grande Champagne Cognac Delamain o Vesper Grande Champagne Cognac o Pail & Dry Tres Belle Grande Champagne Cognac o Tres Venerable Grande Champagne Cognac o Tres Venerarble Grand Champagne Cognac o Reserve de la Famille Grande Champagne Cognac o All are at least 25 years or older Hardy o V.S. o V.S.O.P. o Napolean, X.O. o Noces d'Or Romantic o Captain Noces d'Or o Noces de Perle o Noces de Diamant Hennessy o V.S. o V.S.O.P. o Privilege, X.O. o Private Reserve 1873 o Pardis Extra Hine Cognac o V.S.O.P. o Antique o Triomphe o Family Reserve Martell o V.S. o Medaillon V.S.O.P. o Cordon Bleu o X.O. Supreme o Martell Extra o L'Or de J&F Martell Remy Martin o V.S. o V.S.O.P. o X.O. Special o Louis XIII Armagnac Armagnac is less known than cognac, but is actually France's oldest brandy. Armagnac has been produced continuously since the fifteenth century. The Armagnac is distilled from white wine grown in the Armagnac region of France. Armagnac is produced by using the continuous distillation process. The white wine registering at 9 to 10 percent alcohol is heated in the traditional copper pot still at a low temperature. The vapors make their way through the coils of the still and produce a spirit of no more than 63 percent alcohol. The low temperature and the low alcohol content produces a product with strong flavors and aroma. The liquid produced is a clear brandy that is then placed in casks that are made of handcrafted Armagnac or Limousine oak. The process can last anywhere from one year to fifty years. The liquor takes on the flavors o

The Professional Bartender’s Handbook A Recipe for Every Drink Known Including Tricks and Games to Impress Your Guests
By Valerie Mellema

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