Every protein consists of a linear sequence over an alphabet of 20 letters/amino acids. The sequence unfolds in the 3-dimensional space through secondary (local foldings), tertiary (bonds) and quaternary (disjoint multiple) structures. The mere existence of the genetic code for the 20 letters of the linear chain could be predicted with the (informationally complete) irreducible characters of the finite group Gn:=Zn⋊2O (with n=5 or 7 and 2O the binary octahedral group) in our previous two papers. It turns out that some quaternary structures of protein complexes display n-fold symmetries. We propose an approach of secondary structures based on free group theory. Our results are compared to other approaches of predicting secondary structures of proteins in terms of α helices, β sheets and coils, or more refined techniques. It is shown that the secondary structure of proteins shows similarities to the structure of some hyperbolic 3-manifolds. The hyperbolic 3-manifold of smallest volume –Gieseking manifold–, some other 3 manifolds and Grothendieck’s cartographic group are singled out as tentative models of such secondary structures. For the quaternary structure, there are links to the Kummer surface.
Klee Irwin is an author, researcher and entrepreneur who now dedicates the majority of his time to Quantum Gravity Research (QGR), a non-profit research institute that he founded in 2009. The mission of the organization is to discover the geometric first-principles unification of space, time, matter, energy, information, and consciousness.
As the Director of QGR, Klee manages a dedicated team of mathematicians and physicists in developing emergence theory to replace the current disparate and conflicting physics theories. Since 2009, the team has published numerous papers and journal articles analyzing the fundamentals of physics.
Klee is also the founder and owner of Irwin Naturals, an award-winning global natural supplement company providing alternative health and healing products sold in thousands of retailers across the globe including Whole Foods, Vitamin Shoppe, Costco, RiteAid, WalMart, CVS, GNC and many others. Irwin Naturals is a long time supporter of Vitamin Angels, which aims to provide lifesaving vitamins to mothers and children at risk of malnutrition thereby reducing preventable illness, blindness, and death and creating healthier communities.
Outside of his work in physics, Klee is active in supporting students, scientists, educators, and founders in their aim toward discovering solutions to activate positive change in the world. He has supported and invested in a wide range of people, causes and companies including Change.org, Upworthy, Donors Choose, Moon Express, Mayasil, the X PRIZE Foundation, and Singularity University where he is an Associate Founder.