News & Politics
Unconventional University Diplomas from Online Vendors: Buying a Ph.D. From a University That Doesn’t Exist George Gollin University of Illinois September, 2003 George Gollin, UIUC 2 Outline First contact with the University Degree Program Checking out Parkwood University Mapping the UDP family tree Whos out there? Verifying credentials of a UDP client Who else is out there? Degrees of fraud Notes and more information George Gollin, UIUC 3 first contact Ever have one of these appear on your PCs screen? I called to reach the University Degree Program. (713-559-1760) George Gollin, UIUC 4 first contact Joseph Kent returned my phone call. We discuss (Nov. 2002): Who the degree would be for Degree granting institution: Parkwood University !campus is the homes and offices of the students ! credit for a "student's prior experiences and knowledge. !Parkwood is a fully recognized distance learning center [by the Distance Learning Council of Europe] George Gollin, UIUC 5 first contact Mr. Kent on the phone Parkwood not accredited but !degree for business and personal purposes. !supporting documentation: certified copies of transcripts, letters of recommendation from their professors, and a contact address to give to potential employers. !theyll only do things which are legal and ethical. The diplomas !patterned after the UCLA diploma !full program (BA, MA, PhD) would cost $4,400 but Id get a significant discount since only requesting a PhD. 6 first contact So its probably not a violation of US law Mr. Kent made sure I understood what it meant for a university to be non-accredited. The diploma would arrive very soon (~10 days) I would be in good company: 7 first contact More about that transcript I called UDP again (April 2003), to see what would happen. Douglas Abbott returned my call 5/1/03. How the transcript works: the professors on their staff invent courses [and grades!] that would be the classroom equivalents to things I had learned through life experience. The transcript would not mention life experience anywhere. It would be for me to explain all this to a prospective employer if I chose to do so. George Gollin, UIUC 8 Parkwood University So wheres Parkwood University? to the rescue! Look for Parkwood !web site: http://www.parkwooduniversity.org/ !no list of faculty or academic officers anywhere. !no phone numbers. !no mailing address. !no departments. !no research. !only possible contact method: a single email address. George Gollin, UIUC 9 Parkwood University web site home page Parkwood University Nice graphics! www.parkwooduniversity.org 10 Parkwood University Message from Jonathan Tibbs, Parkwoods president. Except for an actor, theres no significant web presence for anyone named Jonathan Tibbs. Note opening sentence of the third paragraph: Those of you whom are already with us at More on this later. www.parkwooduniversity.org/aboutus.html George Gollin, UIUC 11 Parkwood University Parkwood University courses of study Looks impressive, yes? Howd they come up with the list? www.parkwooduniversity.org/studyopp.html They copied it from the University of Central Florida. www.ucf.edu/catalog/current/UCF_Degree_Programs/ www.parkwooduniversity.org/studyopp.html George Gollin, UIUC 13 mapping the UDP family tree Lets look for clones of Parkwood University Google.com again. Search for Those of you whom are already with us at George Gollin, UIUC 14 mapping the UDP family tree Send in the clones! Westhampton University presidents message is ~identical. http://www.westhamptonuniversity. org/int/about_us.html youll see her later 15 mapping the UDP family tree Everybody must get cloned! Hartley University presidents message is too. http://www.hartleyuniversity.org/president.html George Gollin, UIUC 16 mapping the UDP family tree Cloned programs of study Glencullen programs list is also a University of Central Florida copy. www.henryheston.com.cnchost.com/glencullen/ George Gollin, UIUC 17 mapping the UDP family tree Dogbert knows what hes doing George Gollin, UIUC 18 mapping the UDP family tree Searches for similar presidents message or programs of study: summary Westhampton University Parkwood University Kingsfield University Hartley University Ashford University Those of you whom are already with us at University of Ravenhurst Thornewood University Parkwood University Kingsfield University Hartley University Glencullen University Ashford University cardiopulmonary sciences + operations concentration + design concentration (5) (8) So far weve found 8 George Gollin, UIUC 19 mapping the UDP family tree Searching for identical phone numbers I ran a credentials check on one of Ashford Universitys customers. (More on this later.) Note the UK fax number in the reply. Lets look for that phone number elsewhere 20 Searching for 44-870-134-4791 mapping the UDP family tree www.henryheston.com.cnchost.com/devonshire www.henryheston.com.cnchost.com/ George Gollin, UIUC 21 mapping the UDP family tree Searching for 44-870-134-4791 Note the formatting of the number: as written its intended for access from overseas. (Inside the UK the number would be 0870-134-4791.) Harrington University University of Devonshire Ashford University (that makes 10 ) The University of Devonshire page also shows a voice phone number: 44-207-644-3745. Here it is (youve heard the voice before): (44-207-644-3745) George Gollin, UIUC 22 mapping the UDP family tree Searching for www.henryheston.com Devonshire and Harrington web sites are in the internet domain www.henryheston.com.cnhost.com. What else can we find there? www.henryheston.com.cnchost.com Harrington University www.henryheston.com.cnchost.com/glencullen Glencullen University Shelbourne University University of Devonshire www.henryheston.com.cnchost.com/shelbourne www.henryheston.com.cnchost.com/devonshire (that makes 11 ) Devonshire, Glencullen, and Harrington are University Degree Program creations. Is Shelbourne one of their creations too? 23 mapping the UDP family tree Yes: Glencullens and Shelbournes phone numbers http://www.henryheston.com.cnchost.com/glencullen/ are identical. Note the email addresses: @univdp.org http://www.henryheston.com.cnchost.com/shelbourne/contact.htm answering machine does not identify the organization (+353 1 633 5884) Searching for common mail servers Google search for the domain name univdp.org turns up Brentwick University, a twin of Shelbourne University. (that makes 12 ) www.brentwickuniv.org/contact.htm www.henryheston.com.cnchost.com/shelbourne/contact.htm The Brentwick University phone number is not in service. Searching for similar contact us pages Search for prospective students + Registered students and graduates to find www.universityofwexford.org/Contact_us/Contact_us.html (that makes 13 ) (Wexford uses the same server as other UDP mills ) University of Wexford www.universityofwexford.org/Wexford_univ/OliverHill.html mapping the UDP family tree How do they turn out new sites so quickly? University of Teesside By borrowing from real universities. (Teesside is real) www.tees.ac.uk/prospstud/welcomevc.cfm Some of the borrowing is extensive. mapping the UDP family tree www.universityofwexford.org/Wexford_univ/Opportunity_University.html University of Teesside University of Wexford www.tees.ac.uk/opportunityuniversity.cfm George Gollin, UIUC 28 mapping the UDP family tree This is like playing whack-a-gopher The UDP inventions keep coming and going: by 2/1/03, almost all the UDP creations mentioned so far had disappeared. (More on this later ) Never fear! UDP continues to create new universities. Heres one whose web pages were created 1/13/03. It seems to be a UDP creation: Landford University (http://www.landforduniversity.org/). Its list of programs of study is also a copy of the University of Central Floridas. Its presidents message is taken from the web site of the accredited Cambridge College (http://www.cambridgecollege.edu/). George Gollin, UIUC 29 Heres-a-gopher: Landford University mapping the UDP family tree (that makes 14 ) George Gollin, UIUC 30 mapping the UDP family tree Landfords site contains other borrowed content Mission statement (http://www.landforduniversity.org/mission_statement.htm) resembles Hamilton Universitys (http://www.hamilton-university.edu/index2_f.html), a non- accredited school (which is licensed by the state of Wyoming) Front page (http://www.landforduniversity.org/) resembles parts of Barrington Universitys (http://www.barrington.edu/body.asp), an internet-only non- accredited school (which is licensed by the state of Alabama) . History page (http://www.landforduniversity.org/History.htm) resembles parts of California Pacific Universitys (http://www.cpu.edu/history.htm), a distance- learning-only non-accredited school (which is licensed by the state of California) . I suppose it is faster to cut-and-paste a new web site than it is to write the material afresh. George Gollin, UIUC 31 mapping the UDP family tree Heres-another-gopher: Northfield University Compare Northfields and Ashfords student services web pages youll see her later (that makes 15 ) George Gollin, UIUC 32 mapping the UDP family tree Tod und Verklarung (Death and Transfiguration) There are numerous reports on the web of University Degree Program solicitations for study at University of Palmers Green University of San Moritz. Neither has a web site any more. Some sites get recycled/reincarnated, others do the Lazarus thing, others just disappear. George Gollin, UIUC 33 Westbourne University reborn as Ashford University mapping the UDP family tree Thanks to Googles caching feature www.ashforduniversity.org Im back! (that makes 16 ) 34 Westbourne University reborn as Ashford University www.ashforduniversity.org/student_services.html Im back! mapping the UDP family tree How do we tell if theyre all really UDP creations? Many (but not all) of the diploma mill mail servers were really the same computer. It seems likely that most of them are run by the same people. Identify the servers two ways: 1. by domain name. For example, in email@example.com mail.hep.uiuc.edu is the domain name. 2. by IP [Internet Protocol] address. This is rather like a phone number: it is unique to a particular computer. hepux8> nslookup mail.hep.uiuc.edu Name: hepux0.hep.uiuc.edu Address: 18.104.22.168 IP address Identifying the mail servers mapping the UDP family tree More about IP addresses Easy-to-remember domain names are mapped to hard-to-remember numerical IP addresses. One computer can have many domain names mapped to its single IP address. hepux8> nslookup hepux0.hep.uiuc.edu Name: hepux0.hep.uiuc.edu Address: 22.214.171.124 hepux8> nslookup mail.hep.uiuc.edu Name: hepux0.hep.uiuc.edu Address: 126.96.36.199 Aliases: mail.hep.uiuc.edu hepux8> nslookup pobox.hep.uiuc.edu Name: hepux0.hep.uiuc.edu Address: 188.8.131.52 Aliases: pobox.hep.uiuc.edu Look into this 37 nslookup query to learn mail server IP addresses mapping the UDP family tree 184.108.40.206 uofwexford.org University of Wexford 14 220.127.116.11 europe.com Westhampton University 16 westbourneu.org no web site uofravenhurst.org no web site uofdevonshire.org thornewood.org univdp.org parkwoodu.org kingsfieldu.org hartleyuniversity.org no email address in site univdp.org univdp.org ashfordu.org mail server 18.104.22.168 Westbourne University 15 University of San Moritz 13 22.214.171.124 University of Ravenhurst 12 University of Palmers Green 11 126.96.36.199 University of Devonshire 10 188.8.131.52 Thornewood University 9 184.108.40.206 Shelbourne University 8 220.127.116.11 Parkwood University 7 18.104.22.168 Kingsfield University 6 22.214.171.124 Hartley University 5 Harrington University 4 126.96.36.199 Glencullen University 3 188.8.131.52 Brentwick University 2 184.108.40.206 Ashford University 1 mail server IP address Enterprise 38 mapping the UDP family tree The (Incomplete) University Degree Program Family Tree as of January, 2003 http://www.universityofwexford.org University of Wexford 14 www.westhamptonuniversity.org Westhampton University 16 www.westbourneuniversity.org/about_us.html Westbourne University 15 No web site in evidence. University of San Moritz 13 www.universityofravenhurst.org University of Ravenhurst 12 No web site in evidence. University of Palmers Green 11 www.henryheston.com.cnchost.com/devonshire University of Devonshire 10 www.thornewooduniversity.org Thornewood University 9 www.henryheston.com.cnchost.com/shelbourne Shelbourne University 8 www.parkwooduniversity.org Parkwood University 7 www.kingsfielduniversity.org Kingsfield University 6 www.hartleyuniversity.org Hartley University 5 www.henryheston.com.cnchost.com Harrington University 4 www.henryheston.com.cnchost.com/glencullen Glencullen University 3 www.brentwickuniv.org Brentwick University 2 www.ashforduniversity.org Ashford University 1 Web site University Degree Program 39 mapping the UDP family tree Did/do any of these places really exist? Ask the Royal Mail at www.royalmail.com email from Ashford University said the address is 5-7 Singer St. EC2A 4BQ London. No Ashford University. 40 mapping the UDP family tree Well, maybe the Royal mail is mistaken. Lets take a look at Singer Street. 41 Ashfords home page photo http://www.ashford-university.org/ I dont think so. Lets take a look at street level 42 mapping the UDP family tree 5-7 Singer Street, EC2A 4BQ London (Friends on sabbatical in London took the photographs.) 43 mapping the UDP family tree Whose names are on the doorbells in the lobby? 44 mapping the UDP family tree Ashford University doesnt exist Perhaps one of the businesses at 5-7 Singer Street has an arrangement to serve as a mail drop for the University Degree Program? George Gollin, UIUC 45 mapping the UDP family tree The Royal Mail says these dont exist either. University of Devonshire 27 Old Gloucester St. WC1N 3XX London. not there. Harrington University 483 Green Lane Palmers Green N13 4BS London. not there. (Also not anywhere else in N13 4BS postal code.) George Gollin, UIUC 46 mapping the UDP family tree But sometimes they say they have campus facilities! Glencullen University: 23 Waterloo St., Dublin 4, Ireland Theres no Glencullen listed in the Dublin online white/yellow pages. Glencullen University claims its Facilities include the sports hall, squash courts, gym, climbing wall, dance studios, tennis courts, boat hard and swimming pool, as well as extensive outdoor sports pitches. Howd they cook up such an elaborate description of something that doesnt exist? The same way they concocted their programs of study George Gollin, UIUC 47 mapping the UDP family tree they borrowed it. Glencullen University University of Southampton University of Southampton henryheston.com.cnchost.com/glencullen/ www.international.soton.ac.uk/student_uni_studentlife.htm (Southampton is a real university) 48 mapping the UDP family tree The real experts I am an amateur. The real experts: John Bear and Allen Ezell. Dr. Bear publishes articles and books on the subject: see http://circledance.tripod.com/johnbear/id1.html. Mr. Ezell was head of the FBIs DipScam operation until his retirement in 1992. (He now works in the private sector investigating corporate fraud, but continues to track down diploma mills.) We share information as we find it. Greg Ashe (an attorney at the Federal Trade Commission) has been managing FTC efforts concerning some of this. We send him stuff too. mapping the UDP family tree So whyd the UDP yank most of its sites in Jan. 2003? Because the U.S. Federal Trade Commission burned them, but not because of the diploma mill scam. (See http://www.ftc.gov/os/2003/01/unknownpi.pdf) FTC case No. 1:03-CV-00021-RMC preliminary injunction (filed 1/24/03): www.henryheston.com.cnchost.com, www.parkwooduniversity.org, www.thornewooduniversity.org, www.brentwickuniversity.org, www.universityofwexford.org, www.ashforduniversity.org, www.kingsfielduniversity.org, www. universityofravenhurst.org, www.westbourneuniversity.org, www.dlce.org, and any other Web sites operated by Defendants, cannot be accessed by the public 50 mapping the UDP family tree A closeup of the letters 53 mapping the UDP family tree Heres an example of a fake international license (Document image from Allen Ezell) 54 George Gollin, UIUC 55 mapping the UDP family tree The licenses are copies of AAA documents Such nice looking documents. Howd they come up with such a lovely design? The same way they cooked up their web sites: they copied someone elses work. Ever buy an International Driving Permit from AAA before a trip to Europe? They cost $10 and are valid for a year. Lets compare 56 mapping the UDP family tree Fake license on left, AAA driving permit on right 57 mapping the UDP family tree Fake license on left, AAA driving permit on right 58 59 mapping the UDP family tree Fake license on left, AAA driving permit on right George Gollin, UIUC 60 mapping the UDP family tree Back to you-know-whats So what happened after the FTC whacked lots of diploma mill sites? George Gollin, UIUC 61 mapping the UDP family tree They came right back! A few weeks later, Ashford and Westbourne resurfaced with different domain names. (Ashford has two now!) www.uwestbourne.ca www.ashford-university.org www.ashforduniversity.net new site(s) www.westbourneuniversity.org www.ashforduniversity.org site closed by FTC 2/6/03 Westbourne 8/1/02 2/16/03 Ashford dates from… “University” Content of sites is very similar (but not completely identical) to the old sites. Very resilient, those gophers! 62 And, of course, there are new gophers too. mapping the UDP family tree 5/24/03 220.127.116.11 http://www.swissu.org/ University of Switzerland 4/28/03 18.104.22.168 http://www.universityofdunham.org.uk/ University of Dunham 4/29/03 22.214.171.124 www.stafford.ac Stafford University 4/7/03 126.96.36.199 www.strassfordu.org.uk Strassford University 2/26/03 188.8.131.52 www.shaftesburyu.org.uk Shaftesbury University cant tell 184.108.40.206 www.aus-edu.org American Austin University 3/6/03 220.127.116.11 www.hartforduniversity-edu.org Hartford University 3/5/03 18.104.22.168 www.landfordu.org Landford University 2/27/03 22.214.171.124 www.uofbedford.org University of Bedford 3/12/03 126.96.36.199 www.parkhurstuniversity.org Parkhurst University 3/30/03 188.8.131.52 www.northfield-university.net Northfield University 2/6/03 184.108.40.206 www.uwestbourne.ca Westbourne 6/24/02 220.127.116.11 www.westhamptonuniversity.org Westhampton University 18.104.22.168 22.214.171.124 site IP address www.ashford-university.org www.ashforduniversity.net site 8/1/02 2/16/03 Ashford University dates from… “University” Above table last modified 5/21/03. mapping the UDP family tree Two of the gophers have the same president. mapping the UDP family tree Theres also a UDP web page served by an Israeli internet service provider. Web access stats are provided by a Dutch tracking service. Like to see whos visiting? http://extremetracking.com/open; unique?login=degreexy http://www.connect.co.il/degree/ George Gollin, UIUC 65 mapping the UDP family tree So who are these people anyway? FTC case No. 1:03-CV-00021-RMC, amended complaint (2/21/03): JASON MATTHIEU ABRAHAM, also known as Yaakov Abraham; CAROLINE SHALLON, also known as Caroline Abraham also known as Chaya Rochel Abraham; CHARLES FOGEL also known as Charlie Lewis. (These are the folks selling bogus licenses. The FTC complaint is here: http://www.ftc.gov/os/2003/02/mvslamdcmp.htm ) George Gollin, UIUC 66 mapping the UDP family tree Their businesses (named in the FTC complaint): Mountain View Systems, Ltd. is an Israeli company with its principal place of business at 89 Rechov Mea Shearim, Jerusalem, Israel. Wheelie International Limited is an [sic] Bahamian company with its principal place of business at 89 Rechov Mea Shearim, Jerusalem, Israel and registered office in Nassau, Bahamas (http://www.ftc.gov/os/2003/02/mvslamdcmp.htm ) George Gollin, UIUC 67 mapping the UDP family tree Their businesses (named in the FTC complaint): Aladdin Travel, Inc. is a North Carolina company with its principal place of business at 3305 Durham Drive, Suite 111, Raleigh, North Carolina and registered office at 1308 Claymore Drive, Garner, North Carolina. Aladdin Travel, Inc. does business as Aladdin Financial Management and University Systems. S.C. Hyacinth S.R.L. is a Romanian company with its principal place of business at 46 Fabrica de Chibrituri Street, Bucharest, Romania and registered office at 25 C.A. Rosetti Street, Ground Floor, Apartment 2, Sector 2, Bucharest, Romania. (http://www.ftc.gov/os/2003/02/mvslamdcmp.htm ) George Gollin, UIUC 68 mapping the UDP family tree Theres more information additional confirmation that the same people are doing the license and degree scams estimates of financial intake, number of employees how the information was obtained, etc. etc. Theres quite a story here. George Gollin, UIUC 69 whos out there Whos out there? One would think that University Degree Program clients would tend to lie low How many people would want to expose their bogus credentials to search engines and wandering internauts? George Gollin, UIUC 70 whos out there The answer is at least 138. Some statistics concerning what was on the web in January, 2003: 15 unspecified 30 bachelor's 42 master's 51 doctorate number of clients highest degree claimed 71 whos out there More stats 39 Harrington University 8 Glencullen University 16 Brentwick University 3 Ashford University 17 Shelbourne University 6 Parkwood University 1 Kingsfield University 0 Hartley University 4 University of Ravenhurst 6 University of Palmers Green 18 University of Devonshire 7 Thornewood University 0 Westhampton University 1 Westbourne University didnt look University of Wexford 12 University of San Moritz number of clients “university” George Gollin, UIUC 72 whos out there Even more stats 6 healthcare/medicine 33 science/engineering 10 education 51 business/finance 22 unspecified 4 religion 12 psychology number of clients degree field uh oh! So some of our UDP clients have used their degrees to obtain clinical and educational positions. Thats serious. George Gollin, UIUC 73 whos out there College and university positions held Devonshire Devonshire Devonshire Shelbourne Shelbourne Kingsfield Harrington Harrington Harrington Brentwick degree source Degree not specified Community college assoc. professor Master of Science in Rehabilitative Medicine and Physical Therapy College athletic coach PhD in progress University lecturer Doctorate degree in cognitive psychology University director of database development Ph.D., Physiology (foreign home institution) Faculty of Health Sciences faculty member MBA and PhD University assoc. professor Bachelor's in physical education College athletic coach J.D. University assoc. professor D.B.A. (also holds a legitimate Ph.D.) College asst. professor Ph.D. (also holds a legitimate Pharm.D.) University asst. clinical professor comments position held George Gollin, UIUC 74 whos out there Primary and secondary education positions held Shelbourne Parkwood Parkwood Harrington Glencullen Brentwick degree source PhD Music teacher and violinist M.S., Life Sciences NIH training coordinator B.Ed., MBA American international school teacher Ph.D. in Special Education Home schooling organization director Bachelor of Arts degree in Music Teacher B.A. Kindergarten, grade 1 teacher comments position held whos out there Healthcare and counseling positions held Ph.D. in clinical psychology and a Ph.D. in ministry, divinity and religious studies Harrington Clinical psychologist Parkwood Harrington Glencullen Brentwick Brentwick Ashford degree source Doctorate Degree in Clinical Psychology (Masters is bogus too.) Licensed marriage & family psychotherapist and clinical supervisor Ph.D Hypnotherapist specializing in weight loss and drug detoxification Ph.D. in Counseling from Glencullen University Family counselor Brentwick is referred to as his medical school in a healthcare directory Substance abuse/addiction counselor Master of Arts in Psychology, Doctorate in Education & Human Development with specialisation in subliminal persuasion techniques Life coach Ph.D. Forensic Psychology Forensic psychologist comments position held George Gollin, UIUC 76 verifying credentials Verifying credentials of a UDP client It is alarming to see clinical positions held by untrained people. Remember the Kitty Genovese murder (New York, 1964)? In the face of potential harm to others we are morally obliged to decide whether or not to act on behalf of the (potential) victim. What to do? call the employer? (but what if its just a typo on the employer web site?) contact the person claiming the diploma mill degree? George Gollin, UIUC 77 verifying credentials Verifying credentials of a UDP client Early on, I stumbled onto the web site for Their Chief Operations Officers educational credentials include George Gollin, UIUC 78 verifying credentials Verifying credentials of a UDP client Apparently, the C.O.O.s duties include clinical responsibilities: !!! This is not a good thing. George Gollin, UIUC 79 verifying credentials Verifying credentials of a UDP client But perhaps its a typo, and the fault of the webmaster? Contacting the forensic psychologists employer might get him/her in hot water, even if its just a transcription error. What to do? Well, maybe its a typo. I sent the forensic psychologist an email message to ask George Gollin, UIUC 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 verifying credentials So what happened next? The forensic psychologist checked me out (via the web), then sent email asking if Id be interested in helping them understand crime scene information (pro bono, which would be the right way for me to do it) in difficult cases. I replied sure, OK, if I could be of service, but I dont know much of anything about this sort of thing. I never contacted the psychologists employer. And then, in two steps, Dr. X disappeared. 88 89 George Gollin, UIUC 90 verifying credentials The lesson in this Someone who knows theyve been burned may decide to disappear, perhaps to resurface elsewhere. George Gollin, UIUC 91 George Gollin, UIUC 92 who else ? Who else is out there? What to do? Three examples from those earlier tables D.B.A. (also holds a legitimate Ph.D.) Devonshire College asst. professor Doctorate Degree in Clinical Psychology (Masters is bogus too.) Parkwood Licensed marriage & family psychotherapist and clinical supervisor Ph.D. (also holds a legitimate Pharm.D.) Devonshire University asst. clinical professor George Gollin, UIUC 93 George Gollin, UIUC 94 George Gollin, UIUC 95 who else ? Licensed marriage & family psychotherapist and clinical supervisor The rules in California are clear, and well documented. See http://www.psychboard.ca.gov/laws_regs/laws_regs2002.pdf. A psychologist is licensed by the California Board of Psychology (http://www.psychboard.ca.gov/). Doctorate is required from an approved or accredited educational institution. Approved (non-accredited) institutions are listed by the California Bureau for Private Postsecondary and Vocational Education (http://www.bppve.ca.gov/). George Gollin, UIUC 96 who else ? Licensed marriage & family psychotherapist and successful clinical supervisor Other California counseling certifications include Marriage, Family, and Child Counselor (renamed Marriage and Family Therapist in 1999), among other things. MFCC/MFT licensing requirements defined by California Board of Behavioral Sciences (http://www.bbs.ca.gov/): doctors or masters degree required from accredited or approved school. Lists of these are available at http://www.bbs.ca.gov/MFCSCHL1.HTM and http://www.bbs.ca.gov/MFCSCHL2.HTM. Links to licensing information for other states can be found at http://kspope.com/licenseboards.html. 97 Contact from a former UDP staff member who else ? In March, 2003 I started receiving email from someone who said he had worked for the University Degree Program for two and a half years, but was no longer involved with them. He began sending me information, asking that I disseminate it widely. Included: faxes of a dozen Diploma Registration Forms from transactions with customers who had bought degrees, mostly PhD, but in medical fields. I do not have independent verification of all the information he has sent. With this in mind here is an example.