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Corporate Finance
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Corporate Finance
© 2008 Ventus Publishing ApS
ISBN 9788776812737
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Corporate Finance
4
Contents
Contents
1.
Introduction
2.
The objective of the fi rm
3.
Present value and opportunity cost of capital
3.1
Compounded versus simple interest
3.2
Present value
3.3
Future value
3.4
Principle of value additivity
3.5
Net present value
3.6
Perpetuities and annuities
3.7
Nominal and real rates of interest
3.8
Valuing bonds using present value formulas
3.9
Valuing stocks using present value formulas
4.
The net present value investment rule
5.
Risk, return and opportunity cost of capital
5.1
Risk and risk premia
5.2
The effect of diversifi cation on risk
5.3 Measuring market risk
5.4
Portfolio risk and return
5.4.1 Portfolio variance
5.4.2 Portfolio’s market risk
8
9
10
10
10
12
12
13
13
16
17
21
24
27
27
29
31
33
34
35
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5
5.5
Portfolio theory
5.6
Capital assets pricing model (CAPM)
5.7
Alternative asset pricing models
5.7.1 Arbitrage pricing theory
5.7.2 Consumption beta
5.7.3 ThreeFactor Model
6.
Capital budgeting
6.1
Cost of capital with preferred stocks
6.2
Cost of capital for new projects
6.3
Alternative methods to adjust for risk
6.4
Capital budgeting in practise
6.4.1 What to discount?
6.4.2 Calculating free cash fl ows
6.4.3 Valuing businesses
6.5 Why projects have positive NPV
7.
Market effi ciency
7.1
Tests of the effi cient market hypothesis
7.1.1 Weak form
7.1.2 Semistrong form
7.1.3 Strong form
7.1.4 Classical stock market anomalies
7.2
Behavioural fi nance
Indholdsfortegnelse
36
38
40
40
41
41
42
43
44
44
44
45
45
45
48
49
50
50
51
53
54
54
what‘s missing in this equation?
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6
8.
Corporate fi nancing and valuation
8.1
Debt characteristics
8.2
Equity characteristics
8.3
Debt policy
8.3.1 Does the fi rm’s debt policy affect fi rm value?
8.3.2 Debt policy in a perfect capital market
8.4
How capital structure affects the beta measure of risk
8.5
How capital structure affects company cost of capital
8.6
Capital structure theory when markets are imperfect
8.7
Introducing corporate taxes and cost of fi nancial distress
8.8
The Tradeoff theory of capital structure
8.9
The pecking order theory of capital structure
8.10 A fi nal word on Weighted Average Cost of Capital
8.11 Dividend policy
8.11.1 Dividend payments in practise
8.11.2 Stock repurchases in practise
8.11.3 How companies decide on the dividend policy
8.11.4 Do the fi rm’s dividend policy affect fi rm value?
8.11.5 Why dividend policy may increase fi rm value
8.11.6 Why dividend policy may decrease fi rm value
9.
Options
9.1
Option value
9.2
What determines option value?
9.3
Option pricing
9.3.1 Binominal method of option pricing
9.3.2 BlackScholes’ Model of option pricing
Indholdsfortegnelse
56
56
56
57
57
57
61
62
62
63
64
66
66
69
69
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
77
79
81
84
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7
Indholdsfortegnelse
10.
Real options
10.1 Expansion option
10.2 Timing option
10.3 Abandonment option
10.4 Flexible production option
10.5 Practical problems in valuing real options
11. Appendix: Overview of formulas
Index
87
87
87
87
88
88
89
95
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Introduction
1. Introduction
This compendium provides a comprehensive overview of the most important topics covered in a corporate
finance course at the Bachelor, Master or MBA level. The intension is to supplement renowned corporate
finance textbooks such as Brealey, Myers and Allen's "Corporate Finance", Damodaran's "Corporate
Finance  Theory and Practice", and Ross, Westerfield and Jordan's "Corporate Finance Fundamentals".
The compendium is designed such that it follows the structure of a typical corporate finance course.
Throughout the compendium theory is supplemented with examples and illustrations.
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Corporate Finance
9
2. The objective of the firm
Corporate Finance is about decisions made by corporations. Not all businesses are organized as
corporations. Corporations have three distinct characteristics:
1. Corporations are legal entities, i.e. legally distinct from it owners and pay their own taxes
2. Corporations have limited liability, which means that shareholders can only loose their initial
investment in case of bankruptcy
3. Corporations have separated ownership and control as owners are rarely managing the firm
The objective of the firm is to maximize shareholder value by increasing the value of the company's stock.
Although other potential objectives (survive, maximize market share, maximize profits, etc.) exist these
are consistent with maximizing shareholder value.
Most large corporations are characterized by separation of ownership and control. Separation of
ownership and control occurs when shareholders not actively are involved in the management. The
separation of ownership and control has the advantage that it allows share ownership to change without
influencing with the daytoday business. The disadvantage of separation of ownership and control is the
agency problem, which incurs agency costs.
Agency costs are incurred when:
1. Managers do not maximize shareholder value
2. Shareholders monitor the management
In firms without separation of ownership and control (i.e. when shareholders are managers) no agency
costs are incurred.
In a corporation the financial manager is responsible for two basic decisions:
1. The investment decision
2. The financing decision
The investment decision is what real assets to invest in, whereas the financing decision deals with how
these investments should be financed. The job of the financial manager is therefore to decide on both such
that shareholder value is maximized.
The objective of the ﬁ rm
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Corporate Finance
10
3. Present value and opportunity cost of capital
Present and future value calculations rely on the principle of time value of money.
Time value of money
One dollar today is worth more than one dollar tomorrow.
The intuition behind the time value of money principle is that one dollar today can start earning interest
immediately and therefore will be worth more than one dollar tomorrow. Time value of money
demonstrates that, all things being equal, it is better to have money now than later.
3.1 Compounded versus simple interest
When money is moved through time the concept of compounded interest is applied. Compounded interest
occurs when interest paid on the investment during the first period is added to the principal. In the
following period interest is paid on the new principal. This contrasts simple interest where the principal is
constant throughout the investment period. To illustrate the difference between simple and compounded
interest consider the return to a bank account with principal balance of €100 and an yearly interest rate of
5%. After 5 years the balance on the bank account would be:

€125.0 with simple interest:
€100 + 5 · 0.05 · €100 = €125.0

€127.6 with compounded interest:
€100 · 1.055 = €127.6
Thus, the difference between simple and compounded interest is the interest earned on interests. This
difference is increasing over time, with the interest rate and in the number of subperiods with interest
payments.
3.2 Present value
Present value (PV) is the value today of a future cash flow. To find the present value of a future cash flow,
Ct, the cash flow is multiplied by a discount factor:
(1)
t
C
factor
discount
=
PV
The discount factor (DF) is the present value of €1 future payment and is determined by the rate of return
on equivalent investment alternatives in the capital market.
(2)
t
r)
1
(
1
=
DF
Present value and opportunity cost of capital
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Corporate Finance
11
Where r is the discount rate and t is the number of years. Inserting the discount factor into the present
value formula yields:
(3)
t
r)
(1
=
PV
t
C
Example:
 What is the present value of receiving €250,000 two years from now if equivalent
investments return 5%?
757
,
226
€
05
.1
000
,
250
€
r)
(1
=
PV
2
t
t
C

Thus, the present value of €250,000 received two years from now is €226,757 if
the discount rate is 5 percent.
From time to time it is helpful to ask the inverse question: How much is €1 invested today worth in the
future?. This question can be assessed with a future value calculation.
Present value and opportunity cost of capital
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Present value and opportunity cost of capital
3.3 Future value
The future value (FV) is the amount to which an investment will grow after earning interest. The future
value of a cash flow, C0, is:
(4)
t
r
C
FV
)
1
(
0
Example:
– What is the future value of €200,000 if interest is compounded annually at a rate
of 5% for three years?
525
,
231
€
)
05
.
1
(
000
,
200
€
3
FV

Thus, the future value in three years of €200,000 today is €231,525 if the discount
rate is 5 percent.
3.4 Principle of value additivity
The principle of value additivity states that present values (or future values) can be added together to
evaluate multiple cash flows. Thus, the present value of a string of future cash flows can be calculated as
the sum of the present value of each future cash flow:
(5)
t
t
r
C
r
C
r
C
r
C
PV
)
1
(
....
)
1
(
)
1
(
)
1
(
3
3
2
2
1
1
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Present value and opportunity cost of capital
Example:

The principle of value additivity can be applied to calculate the present value of the
income stream of €1,000, €2000 and €3,000 in year 1, 2 and 3 from now,
respectively.

The present value of each future cash flow is calculated by discounting the cash
flow with the 1, 2 and 3 year discount factor, respectively. Thus, the present value
of €3,000 received in year 3 is equal to €3,000 / 1.13 = €2,253.9.

Discounting the cash flows individually and adding them subsequently yields a
present value of €4,815.9.
3.5 Net present value
Most projects require an initial investment. Net present value is the difference between the present value
of future cash flows and the initial investment, C0, required to undertake the project:
(6)
n
i
i
i
r
C
1
0
)
1
(
C
=
NPV
Note that if C0 is an initial investment, then C0 < 0.
3.6 Perpetuities and annuities
Perpetuities and annuities are securities with special cash flow characteristics that allow for an easy
calculation of the present value through the use of shortcut formulas.
$1,000
€2,000
0
1
2
3
€3,000
Present value
with r = 10%
€1000/1.1 = € 909.1
€2000/1.12 = €1,652.9
€3000/1.13 = €2,253.9
€4,815.9
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Perpetuity
Security with a constant cash flow that is (theoretically) received forever. The present
value of a perpetuity can be derived from the annual return, r, which equals the
constant cash flow, C, divided by the present value (PV) of the perpetuity:
PV
C
r
Solving for PV yields:
(7)
r
C
perpetuity
of
PV
Thus, the present value of a perpetuity is given by the constant cash flow, C, divided by
the discount rate, r.
In case the cash flow of the perpetuity is growing at a constant rate rather than being constant, the present
value formula is slightly changed. To understand how, consider the general present value formula:
)
1
(
)
1
(
)
1
(
3
3
2
2
1
r
C
r
C
r
C
PV
Present value and opportunity cost of capital
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Since the cash flow is growing at a constant rate g it implies that C2 = (1+g) · C1, C3 = (1+g)2 · C1, etc.
Substituting into the PV formula yields:
)
1
(
)
1
(
)
1
(
)
1
(
)
1
(
3
1
2
2
1
1
r
C
g
r
C
g
r
C
PV
Utilizing that the present value is a geometric series allows for the following simplification for the present
value of growing perpetuity:
(8)
g
r
C
1
ty
perpetitui
growing
of
PV
Annuity
An asset that pays a fixed sum each year for a specified number of years. The present value of an
annuity can be derived by applying the principle of value additivity. By constructing two perpetuities,
one with cash flows beginning in year 1 and one beginning in year t+1, the cash flow of the annuity
beginning in year 1 and ending in year t is equal to the difference between the two perpetuities. By
calculating the present value of the two perpetuities and applying the principle of value additivity, the
present value of the annuity is the difference between the present values of the two perpetuities.
(9)
factor
Annuity
1
1
1
annuity
of
PV
t
r
r
r
C
Note that the term in the square bracket is referred to as the annuity factor.
r
C
Perpetuity 1
(first payment in year 1)
Perpetuity 2
(first payment in year t + 1)
Annuity from
(year 1 to year t)
Asset
Year of Payment
0 1 2….…….t t +1…………...
Present Value
t
r
r
C
)
1
(
1
t
r
r
C
r
C
)
1
(
1
Present value and opportunity cost of capital
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Present value and opportunity cost of capital
Example: Annuities in home mortgages
 When families finance their consumption the question often is to find a series of cash payments
that provide a given value today, e.g. to finance the purchase of a new home. Suppose the house
costs €300,000 and the initial payment is €50,000. With a 30year loan and a monthly interest
rate of 0.5 percent what is the appropriate monthly mortgage payment?
The monthly mortgage payment can be found by considering the present value of the loan. The
loan is an annuity where the mortgage payment is the constant cash flow over a 360 month
period (30 years times 12 months = 360 payments):
PV(loan) = mortgage payment · 360monthly annuity factor
Solving for the mortgage payment yields:
Mortgage payment =
PV(Loan)/360monthly annuity factor
=
€250K / (1/0.005 – 1/(0.005 · 1.005360)) = €1,498.87
Thus, a monthly mortgage payment of €1,498.87 is required to finance the purchase of the
house.
3.7 Nominal and real rates of interest
Cash flows can either be in current (nominal) or constant (real) dollars. If you deposit €100 in a bank
account with an interest rate of 5 percent, the balance is €105 by the end of the year. Whether €105 can
buy you more goods and services that €100 today depends on the rate of inflation over the year.
Inflation is the rate at which prices as a whole are increasing, whereas nominal interest rate is the rate at
which money invested grows. The real interest rate is the rate at which the purchasing power of an
investment increases.
The formula for converting nominal interest rate to a real interest rate is:
(10)
rate
inflation
+
1
rate
interest
nominal
+
1
=
rate
interest
real
1
For small inflation and interest rates the real interest rate is approximately equal to the nominal interest
rate minus the inflation rate.
Investment analysis can be done in terms of real or nominal cash flows, but discount rates have to be
defined consistently
– Real discount rate for real cash flows
– Nominal discount rate for nominal cash flows
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Present value and opportunity cost of capital
3.8 Valuing bonds using present value formulas
A bond is a debt contract that specifies a fixed set of cash flows which the issuer has to pay to the
bondholder. The cash flows consist of a coupon (interest) payment until maturity as well as repayment of
the par value of the bond at maturity.
The value of a bond is equal to the present value of the future cash flows:
(11)
Value of bond = PV(cash flows) = PV(coupons) + PV(par value)
Since the coupons are constant over time and received for a fixed time period the present value can be
found by applying the annuity formula:
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Present value and opportunity cost of capital
(12)
PV(coupons) = coupon · annuity factor
Example:

Consider a 10year US government bond with a par value of $1,000 and a coupon
payment of $50. What is the value of the bond if other mediumterm US bonds
offered a 4% return to investors?
Value of bond
= PV(Coupon) + PV(Par value)
= $50 · [1/0.04  1/(0.04·1.0410)] + $1,000 · 1/1.0410
= $50 · 8.1109 + $675.56 = $1,081.1
Thus, if other mediumterm US bonds offer a 4% return to investors the price of
the 10year government bond with a coupon interest rate of 5% is $1,081.1.
The rate of return on a bond is a mix of the coupon payments and capital gains or losses as the price of the
bond changes:
(13)
investment
change
price
income
coupon
bond
on
return
of
Rate
Because bond prices change when the interest rate changes, the rate of return earned on the bond will
fluctuate with the interest rate. Thus, the bond is subject to interest rate risk. All bonds are not equally
affected by interest rate risk, since it depends on the sensitivity to interest rate fluctuations.
The interest rate required by the market on a bond is called the bond's yield to maturity. Yield to maturity
is defined as the discount rate that makes the present value of the bond equal to its price. Moreover, yield
to maturity is the return you will receive if you hold the bond until maturity. Note that the yield to
maturity is different from the rate of return, which measures the return for holding a bond for a specific
time period.
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To find the yield to maturity (rate of return) we therefore need to solve for r in the price equation.
Example:
 What is the yield to maturity of a 3year bond with a coupon interest rate of 10% if
the current price of the bond is 113.6?
Since yield to maturity is the discount rate that makes the present value of the
future cash flows equal to the current price, we need to solve for r in the equation
where price equals the present value of cash flows:
6
.
113
)
1
(
110
)
1
(
10
)
1
(
10
bond
on
Price
flows)
PV(Cash
3
2
r
r
r
The yield to maturity is the found by solving for r by making use of a spreadsheet,
a financial calculator or by hand using a trail and error approach.
6
.
113
05
.1
110
05
.1
10
05
.1
10
3
2
Thus, if the current price is equal to 113.6 the bond offers a return of 5 percent if
held to maturity.
The yield curve is a plot of the relationship between yield to maturity and the maturity of bonds.
Figure 1: Yield curve
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
1
3
6
12
24
60
120
360
Maturities (in months)
Y
ie
ld
to
m
at
ur
ity
(%
)
Present value and opportunity cost of capital
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As illustrated in Figure 1 the yield curve is (usually) upward sloping, which means that longterm bonds
have higher yields. This happens because longterm bonds are subject to higher interest rate risk, since
longterm bond prices are more sensitive to changes to the interest rate.
The yield to maturity required by investors is determined by
1.
Interest rate risk
2. Time to maturity
3. Default risk
The default risk (or credit risk) is the risk that the bond issuer may default on its obligations. The default
risk can be judged from credit ratings provided by special agencies such as Moody's and Standard and
Poor's. Bonds with high credit ratings, reflecting a strong ability to repay, are referred to as investment
grade, whereas bonds with a low credit rating are called speculative grade (or junk bonds).
In summary, there exist five important relationships related to a bond's value:
1. The value of a bond is reversely related to changes in the interest rate
2. Market value of a bond will be less than par value if investor’s required rate is above the coupon
interest rate
Present value and opportunity cost of capital
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3. As maturity approaches the market value of a bond approaches par value
4. Longterm bonds have greater interest rate risk than do shortterm bonds
5. Sensitivity of a bond’s value to changing interest rates depends not only on the length of time to
maturity, but also on the patterns of cash flows provided by the bond
3.9 Valuing stocks using present value formulas
The price of a stock is equal to the present value of all future dividends. The intuition behind this insight is
that the cash payoff to owners of the stock is equal to cash dividends plus capital gains or losses. Thus, the
expected return that an investor expects from a investing in a stock over a set period of time is equal to:
(14)
0
0
1
1
investment
gain
capital
dividend
r
stock
on
return
Expected
P
P
P
Div
Where Divt and Pt denote the dividend and stock price in year t, respectively. Isolating the current stock
price P0 in the expected return formula yields:
(15)
r
P
Div
P
1
1
1
0
The question then becomes "What determines next years stock price P1?". By changing the subscripts next
year's price is equal to the discounted value of the sum of dividends and expected price in year 2:
r
P
Div
P
1
2
2
1
Inserting this into the formula for the current stock price P0 yields:
2
2
2
1
2
2
1
1
1
1
1
0
)
1
(
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
r
P
Div
r
Div
r
P
Div
Div
r
P
Div
r
r
P
Div
P
By recursive substitution the current stock price is equal to the sum of the present value of all future
dividends plus the present value of the horizon stock price, PH.
H
H
H
t
t
t
H
H
H
r
P
r
Div
r
P
Div
r
Div
r
Div
P
r
P
Div
r
Div
r
Div
P
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
2
1
0
3
3
3
2
2
1
0
Present value and opportunity cost of capital
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Present value and opportunity cost of capital
The final insight is that as H approaches zero, [PH / (1+r)H] approaches zero. Thus, in the limit the current
stock price, P0, can be expressed as the sum of the present value of all future dividends.
Discounted dividend model
(16)
1
0
1
t
t
t
r
Div
P
In cases where firms have constant growth in the dividend a special version of the discounted dividend
model can be applied. If the dividend grows at a constant rate, g, the present value of the stock can be
found by applying the present value formula for perpetuities with constant growth.
Discounted dividend growth model
(17)
g
r
Div
P
1
0
The discounted dividend growth model is often referred to as the Gordon growth model.
Some firms have both common and preferred shares. Common stockholders are residual claimants on
corporate income and assets, whereas preferred shareholders are entitled only to a fixed dividend (with
priority over common stockholders). In this case the preferred stocks can be valued as a perpetuity paying
a constant dividend forever.
(18)
r
Div
P
0
The perpetuity formula can also be applied to value firms in general if we assume no growth and that all
earnings are paid out to shareholders.
(19)
r
EPS
r
Div
P
1
1
0
If a firm elects to pay a lower dividend, and reinvest the funds, the share price may increase because future
dividends may be higher.
Growth can be derived from applying the return on equity to the percentage of earnings ploughed back
into operations:
(20)
g = return on equity · plough back ratio
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Where the plough back ratio is the fraction of earnings retained by the firm. Note that the plough back
ratio equals (1  payout ratio), where the payout ratio is the fraction of earnings paid out as dividends.
The value of growth can be illustrated by dividing the current stock price into a nongrowth part and a part
related to growth.
(21)
PVGO
P
P
growth
No
growth
With
Where the growth part is referred to as the present value of growth opportunities (PVGO). Inserting the
value of the no growth stock from (22) yields:
(22)
PVGO
r
EPS
P
1
0
Firms in which PVGO is a substantial fraction of the current stock price are referred to as growth stocks,
whereas firms in which PVGO is an insignificant fraction of the current stock prices are called income
stocks.
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4. The net present value investment rule
Net present value is the difference between a project's value and its costs. The net present value
investment rule states that firms should only invest in projects with positive net present value.
When calculating the net present value of a project the appropriate discount rate is the opportunity cost of
capital, which is the rate of return demanded by investors for an equally risky project. Thus, the net
present value rule recognizes the time value of money principle.
To find the net present value of a project involves several steps:
How to find the net present value of a project
1. Forecast cash flows
2. Determinate the appropriate opportunity cost of capital, which takes into account
the principle of time value of money and the riskreturn tradeoff
3. Use the discounted cash flow formula and the opportunity cost of capital to
calculate the present value of the future cash flows
4. Find the net present value by taking the difference between the present value of
future cash flows and the project's costs
There exist several other investment rules:
 Book rate of return

Payback rule

Internal rate of return
To understand why the net present value rule leads to better investment decisions than the alternatives it is
worth considering the desirable attributes for investment decision rules. The goal of the corporation is to
maximize firm value. A shareholder value maximizing investment rule is:
 Based on cash flows
 Taking into account time value of money
 Taking into account differences in risk
The net present value rule meets all these requirements and directly measures the value for shareholders
created by a project. This is fare from the case for several of the alternative rules.
The net present value investment rule
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The book rate of return is based on accounting returns rather than cash flows:
Book rate of return
Average income divided by average book value over project life
(23)
assets
of
book value
income
book
return
of
rate
Book
The main problem with the book rate of return is that it only includes the annual depreciation charge and
not the full investment. Due to time value of money this provides a negative bias to the cost of the
investment and, hence, makes the return appear higher. In addition no account is taken for risk. Due to the
risk return tradeoff we might accept poor high risk projects and reject good low risk projects.
Payback rule
The payback period of a project is the number of years it takes before the cumulative
forecasted cash flow equals the initial outlay.
The payback rule only accepts projects that “payback” in the desired time frame.
This method is flawed, primarily because it ignores later year cash flows and the present value of future cash
flows. The latter problem can be solved by using a payback rule based on discounted cash flows.
Internal rate of return (IRR)
Defined as the rate of return which makes NPV=0. We find IRR for an investment
project lasting T years by solving:
(24)
0
1
1
1
2
2
1
T
T
o
IRR
C
IRR
C
IRR
C
C
NPV
The IRR investment rule accepts projects if the project's IRR exceeds the opportunity
cost of capital, i.e. when IRR > r.
Finding a project's IRR by solving for NPV equal to zero can be done using a financial calculator,
spreadsheet or trial and error calculation by hand.
Mathematically, the IRR investment rule is equivalent to the NPV investment rule. Despite this the IRR
investment rule faces a number of pitfalls when applied to projects with special cash flow characteristics.
The net present value investment rule
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1.
Lending or borrowing?
 With certain cash flows the NPV of the project increases if the discount rate
increases. This is contrary to the normal relationship between NPV and discount rates
2.
Multiple rates of return
 Certain cash flows can generate NPV=0 at multiple discount rates. This will happen
when the cash flow stream changes sign. Example: Maintenance costs. In addition, it
is possible to have projects with no IRR and a positive NPV
3.
Mutually exclusive projects

Firms often have to choose between mutually exclusive projects. IRR sometimes
ignores the magnitude of the project. Large projects with a lower IRR might be
preferred to small projects with larger IRR.
4.
Term structure assumption
 We assume that discount rates are constant for the term of the project. What do we
compare the IRR with, if we have different rates for each period, r1, r2, r3, …? It is
not easy to find a traded security with equivalent risk and the same time pattern of
cash flows
Finally, note that both the IRR and the NPV investment rule are discounted cash flow methods. Thus, both
methods possess the desirable attributes for an investment rule, since they are based on cash flows and
allows for risk and time value of money. Under careful use both methods give the same investment
decisions (whether to accept or reject a project). However, they may not give the same ranking of projects,
which is a problem in case of mutually exclusive projects.
The net present value investment rule
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5. Risk, return and opportunity cost of capital
Opportunity cost of capital depends on the risk of the project. Thus, to be able to determine the
opportunity cost of capital one must understand how to measure risk and how investors are compensated
for taking risk.
5.1 Risk and risk premia
The risk premium on financial assets compensates the investor for taking risk. The risk premium is the
difference between the return on the security and the risk free rate.
To measure the average rate of return and risk premium on securities one has to look at very long time
periods to eliminate the potential bias from fluctuations over short intervals.
Over the last 100 years U.S. common stocks have returned an average annual nominal compounded rate of
return of 10.1% compared to 4.1% for U.S. Treasury bills. As U.S. Treasury bill has short maturity and
there is no risk of default, shortterm government debt can be considered riskfree. Investors in common
stocks have earned a risk premium of 7.0 percent (10.1  4.1 percent.). Thus, on average investors in
common stocks have historically been compensated with a 7.0 percent higher return per year for taking on
the risk of common stocks.
Table 1: Average nominal compounded returns,
standard deviation and risk premium on U.S. securities, 19002000.
Annual return
Std. variation
Risk premium
U.S. Treasury Bills
4.1%
4.7%
0.0%
U.S. Government Bonds
4.8%
10.0%
0.7%
U.S. Common Stocks
10.1%
20.2%
7.0%
Source: E. Dimson, P.R. Mash, and M Stauton, Triumph of the Optimists: 101 Years of
Investment returns, Princeton University Press, 2002.
Across countries the historical risk premium varies significantly. In Denmark the average risk premium
was only 4.3 percent compared to 10.7 percent in Italy. Some of these differences across countries may
reflect differences in business risk, while others reflect the underlying economic stability over the last
century.
The historic risk premium may overstate the risk premium demanded by investors for several reasons.
First, the risk premium may reflect the possibility that the economic development could have turned out to
be less fortunate. Second, stock returns have for several periods outpaced the underlying growth in
earnings and dividends, something which cannot be expected to be sustained.
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The risk of financial assets can be measured by the spread in potential outcomes. The variance and
standard deviation on the return are standard statistical measures of this spread.
Variance
Expected (average) value of squared deviations from mean. The variance measures
the return volatility and the units are percentage squared.
(25)
2
1
2
)
(
1
1
)
(
Variance
r
r
N
r
t
N
t
Where r denotes the average return and N is the total number of observations.
Standard deviation
Square root of variance. The standard deviation measures the return volatility and
units are in percentage.
(26)
)
(
variance
)
(
Std.dev.
r
r
Using the standard deviation on the yearly returns as measure of risk it becomes clear that U.S. Treasury
bills were the least variable security, whereas common stock were the most variable. This insight
highlights the riskreturn tradeoff, which is key to the understanding of how financial assets are priced.
Riskreturn tradeoff
Investors will not take on additional risk unless they expect to be compensated with
additional return
The riskreturn tradeoff relates the expected return of an investment to its risk. Low levels of uncertainty
(low risk) are associated with low expected returns, whereas high levels of uncertainty (high risk) are
associated with high expected returns.
It follows from the riskreturn tradeoff that rational investors will when choosing between two assets that
offer the same expected return prefer the less risky one. Thus, an investor will take on increased risk only
if compensated by higher expected returns. Conversely, an investor who wants higher returns must accept
more risk. The exact tradeoff will differ by investor based on individual risk aversion characteristics (i.e.
the individual preference for risk taking).
Risk, return and opportunity cost of capital
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5.2 The effect of diversification on risk
The risk of an individual asset can be measured by the variance on the returns. The risk of individual
assets can be reduced through diversification. Diversification reduces the variability when the prices of
individual assets are not perfectly correlated. In other words, investors can reduce their exposure to
individual assets by holding a diversified portfolio of assets. As a result, diversification will allow for the
same portfolio return with reduced risk.
Example:

A classical example of the benefit of diversification is to consider the effect of combining the
investment in an icecream producer with the investment in a manufacturer of umbrellas. For
simplicity, assume that the return to the icecream producer is +15% if the weather is sunny and
10% if it rains. Similarly the manufacturer of umbrellas benefits when it rains (+15%) and looses
when the sun shines (10%). Further, assume that each of the two weather states occur with
probability 50%.
Expected return
Variance
Icecream producer
0.5·15% + 0.5·10% = 2.5%
0.5· [152.5]2 +0.5· [102.5]2 = 12.52%
Umbrella manufacturer
0.5·10% + 0.5·15% = 2.5%
0.5· [102.5]2 +0.5· [152.5]2 = 12.52%
 Both investments offer an expected return of +2.5% with a standard deviation of 12.5 percent

Compare this to the portfolio that invests 50% in each of the two stocks. In this case, the
expected return is +2.5% both when the weather is sunny and rainy (0.5*15% + 0.5*10% =
2.5%). However, the standard deviation drops to 0% as there is no variation in the return across
the two states. Thus, by diversifying the risk related to the weather could be hedged. This
happens because the returns to the icecream producer and umbrella manufacturer are perfectly
negatively correlated.
Obviously the prior example is extreme as in the real world it is difficult to find investments that are
perfectly negatively correlated and thereby diversify away all risk. More generally the standard deviation
of a portfolio is reduced as the number of securities in the portfolio is increased. The reduction in risk will
occur if the stock returns within our portfolio are not perfectly positively correlated. The benefit of
diversification can be illustrated graphically:
Risk, return and opportunity cost of capital
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Figure 2: How portfolio diversification reduces risk
0
5
10
15
Number of stocks in portfolio
Va
ria
bi
lit
y
in
re
tu
rn
s
(s
ta
nd
ar
d
de
vi
at
io
n
%
)
Market risk
Unique risk
Total
risk
As the number of stocks in the portfolio increases the exposure to risk decreases. However, portfolio
diversification cannot eliminate all risk from the portfolio. Thus, total risk can be divided into two types of
risk: (1) Unique risk and (2) Market risk. It follows from the graphically illustration that unique risk can
be diversified way, whereas market risk is nondiversifiable. Total risk declines until the portfolio consists
of around 1520 securities, then for each additional security in the portfolio the decline becomes very slight.
Risk, return and opportunity cost of capital
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Portfolio risk
Total risk = Unique risk + Market risk
Unique risk
– Risk factors affecting only a single assets or a small group of assets
– Also called
o
Idiosyncratic risk
o Unsystematic risk
o Companyunique risk
o Diversifiable risk
o Firm specific risk
– Examples:
o A strike among the workers of a company, an increase in the interest
rate a company pays on its shortterm debt by its bank, a product
liability suit.
Market risk
– Economywide sources of risk that affects the overall stock market. Thus, market
risk influences a large number of assets, each to a greater or lesser extent.
– Also called
o Systematic risk
o Nondiversifiable risk
– Examples:
o Changes in the general economy or major political events such as
changes in general interest rates, changes in corporate taxation, etc.
As diversification allows investors to essentially eliminate the unique risk, a welldiversified investor will
only require compensation for bearing the market risk of the individual security. Thus, the expected return
on an asset depends only on the market risk.
5.3 Measuring market risk
Market risk can be measured by beta, which measures how sensitive the return is to market movements.
Thus, beta measures the risk of an asset relative to the average asset. By definition the average asset has a
beta of one relative to itself. Thus, stocks with betas below 1 have lower than average market risk;
whereas a beta above 1 means higher market risk than the average asset.
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Estimating beta
Beta is measuring the individual asset's exposure to market risk. Technically the beta
on a stock is defined as the covariance with the market portfolio divided by the
variance of the market:
(27)
2
market
of
variance
market
with
covariance
m
im
i
In practise the beta on a stock can be estimated by fitting a line to a plot of the return to
the stock against the market return. The standard approach is to plot monthly returns
for the stock against the market over a 60month period.
Slope = 1.14
R2 = 0.084
Return on
market, %
Return on
stock, %
Intuitively, beta measures the average change to the stock price when the market rises
with an extra percent. Thus, beta is the slope on the fitted line, which takes the value
1.14 in the example above. A beta of 1.14 means that the stock amplifies the
movements in the stock market, since the stock price will increase with 1.14% when
the market rise an extra 1%. In addition it is worth noticing that rsquare is equal to
8.4%, which means that only 8.4% of the variation in the stock price is related to
market risk.
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5.4 Portfolio risk and return
The expected return on a portfolio of stocks is a weighted average of the expected returns on the
individual stocks. Thus, the expected return on a portfolio consisting of n stocks is:
(28)
n
1
i
w
return
Portfolio
i
i
r
Where wi denotes the fraction of the portfolio invested in stock i and r i is the expected return on stock i.
Example:

Suppose you invest 50% of your portfolio in Nokia and 50% in Nestlé. The
expected return on your Nokia stock is 15% while Nestlé offers 10%. What is the
expected return on your portfolio?

%
5.
12
%
10
5
.0
%
15
5
.0
w
return
Portfolio
n
1
i
i
i
r

A portfolio with 50% invested in Nokia and 50% in Nestlé has an expected return
of 12.5%.
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5.4.1 Portfolio variance
Calculating the variance on a portfolio is more involved. To understand how the portfolio variance is
calculated consider the simple case where the portfolio only consists of two stocks, stock 1 and 2. In this
case the calculation of variance can be illustrated by filling out four boxes in the table below.
Table 2: Calculation of portfolio variance
2
2
2
2
2
1
12
2
1
12
2
1
2
1
12
2
1
12
2
1
2
1
2
1
w
w
w
w
w
2
Stock
w
w
w
w
w
1
Stock
2
Stock
1
Stock
In the top left corner of Table 2, you weight the variance on stock 1 by the square of the fraction of the
portfolio invested in stock 1. Similarly, the bottom left corner is the variance of stock 2 times the square of
the fraction of the portfolio invested in stock 2. The two entries in the diagonal boxes depend on the
covariance between stock 1 and 2. The covariance is equal to the correlation coefficient times the product
of the two standard deviations on stock 1 and 2. The portfolio variance is obtained by adding the content
of the four boxes together:
2
1
12
2
1
2
2
2
2
2
1
2
1
2
variance
Portfolio
w
w
w
w
The benefit of diversification follows directly from the formula of the portfolio variance, since the
portfolio variance is increasing in the covariance between stock 1 and 2. Combining stocks with a low
correlation coefficient will therefore reduce the variance on the portfolio.
Example:

Suppose you invest 50% of your portfolio in Nokia and 50% in Nestlé. The
standard deviation on Nokia’s and Nestlé's return is 30% and 20%, respectively.
The correlation coefficient between the two stocks is 0.4. What is the portfolio
variance?
2
2
2
2
2
2
1
12
2
1
2
2
2
2
2
1
2
1
1
.
21
445
20
30
4
.0
5
.
0
5
.
0
2
20
5
.
0
30
5
.
0
2
variance
Portfolio
w
w
w
w

A portfolio with 50% invested in Nokia and 50% in Nestlé has a variance of 445,
which is equivalent to a standard deviation of 21.1%.
For a portfolio of n stocks the portfolio variance is equal to:
(29)
n
1
i
1
variance
Portfolio
n
j
ij
j
i w
w
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Note that when i=j, ij is the variance of stock i, i2. Similarly, when ij, ij is the covariance between
stock i and j as ij = ijij.
5.4.2 Portfolio's market risk
The market risk of a portfolio of assets is a simple weighted average of the betas on the individual assets.
(30)
n
1
i
w
beta
Portfolio
i
i
Where wi denotes the fraction of the portfolio invested in stock i and i is market risk of stock i.
Example:

Consider the portfolio consisting of three stocks A, B and C.
Amount invested
Expected return
Beta
Stock A
1000
10%
0.8
Stock B
1500
12%
1.0
Stock C
2500
14%
1.2
 What is the beta on this portfolio?

As the portfolio beta is a weighted average of the betas on each stock, the
portfolio weight on each stock should be calculated. The investment in stock A is
$1000 out of the total investment of $5000, thus the portfolio weight on stock A is
20%, whereas 30% and 50% are invested in stock B and C, respectively.

The expected return on the portfolio is:
%
6.
12
%
14
5
.0
%
12
3
.0
%
10
2
.0
1
n
i
i
i
P
r
w
r

Similarly, the portfolio beta is:
06
.
1
2
.
1
5
.
0
1
3
.
0
8
.
0
2
.
0
1
n
i
i
i
P
w

The portfolio investing 20% in stock A, 30% in stock B, and 50% in stock C has an
expected return of 12.6% and a beta of 1.06. Note that a beta above 1 implies that
the portfolio has greater market risk than the average asset.
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5.5 Portfolio theory
Portfolio theory provides the foundation for estimating the return required by investors for different assets.
Through diversification the exposure to risk could be minimized, which implies that portfolio risk is less
than the average of the risk of the individual stocks. To illustrate this consider Figure 3, which shows how
the expected return and standard deviation change as the portfolio is comprised by different combinations
of the Nokia and Nestlé stock.
Figure 3: Portfolio diversification
100% in Nestlé
100% in Nokia
Standard Deviation
Expected Return (%)
50% in Nokia
50% in Nestlé
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If the portfolio invested 100% in Nestlé the expected return would be 10% with a standard deviation of
20%. Similarly, if the portfolio invested 100% in Nokia the expected return would be 15% with a standard
deviation of 30%. However, a portfolio investing 50% in Nokia and 50% in Nestlé would have an
expected return of 12.5% with a standard deviation of 21.1%. Note that the standard deviation of 21.1% is
less than the average of the standard deviation of the two stocks (0.5 · 20% + 0.5 · 30% = 25%). This is
due to the benefit of diversification.
In similar vein, every possible asset combination can be plotted in riskreturn space. The outcome of this
plot is the collection of all such possible portfolios, which defines a region in the riskreturn space. As the
objective is to minimize the risk for a given expected return and maximize the expected return for a given
risk, it is preferred to move up and to the left in Figure 4.
Figure 4: Portfolio theory and the efficient frontier
The solid line along the upper edge of this region is known as the efficient frontier. Combinations along
this line represent portfolios for which there is lowest risk for a given level of return. Conversely, for a
given amount of risk, the portfolio lying on the efficient frontier represents the combination offering the
best possible return. Thus, the efficient frontier is a collection of portfolios, each one optimal for a given
amount of risk.
The Sharperatio measures the amount of return above the riskfree rate a portfolio provides compared to
the risk it carries.
(31)
i
f
i
r
r
i
portfolio
on
ratio
Sharpe
Where ri is the return on portfolio i, rf is the risk free rate and i is the standard deviation on portfolio i's
return. Thus, the Sharperatio measures the risk premium on the portfolio per unit of risk.
Standard Deviation
Expected Return (%)
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In a wellfunctioning capital market investors can borrow and lend at the same rate. Consider an investor
who borrows and invests fraction of the funds in a portfolio of stocks and the rest in shortterm
government bonds. In this case the investor can obtain an expected return from such an allocation along
the line from the risk free rate rf through the tangent portfolio in Figure 5. As lending is the opposite of
borrowing the line continues to the right of the tangent portfolio, where the investor is borrowing
additional funds to invest in the tangent portfolio. This line is known as the capital allocation line and
plots the expected return against risk (standard deviation).
Figure 5: Portfolio theory
The tangent portfolio is called the market portfolio. The market portfolio is the portfolio on the efficient
frontier with the highest Sharperatio. Investors can therefore obtain the best possible risk return tradeoff
by holding a mixture of the market portfolio and borrowing or lending. Thus, by combining a riskfree
asset with risky assets, it is possible to construct portfolios whose riskreturn profiles are superior to those
on the efficient frontier.
5.6 Capital assets pricing model (CAPM)
The Capital Assets Pricing Model (CAPM) derives the expected return on an assets in a market, given the
riskfree rate available to investors and the compensation for market risk. CAPM specifies that the
expected return on an asset is a linear function of its beta and the market risk premium:
(32)
)
(
i
stock
on
return
Expected
f
m
i
f
i
r
r
r
r
Where rf is the riskfree rate, i is stock i's sensitivity to movements in the overall stock market, whereas (r
m  r f ) is the market risk premium per unit of risk. Thus, the expected return is equal to the risk freerate
plus compensation for the exposure to market risk. As i is measuring stock i's exposure to market risk in
units of risk, and the market risk premium is the compensations to investors per unit of risk, the
compensation for market risk of stock i is equal to the i (r m  r f ).
Standard Deviation
Expected Return (%)
Market
portfolio
Risk free rate
Risk, return and opportunity cost of capital
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Figure 6 illustrates CAPM:
Figure 6: Portfolio expected return
The relationship between and required return is plotted on the securities market line, which shows
expected return as a function of . Thus, the security market line essentially graphs the results from the
CAPM theory. The xaxis represents the risk (beta), and the yaxis represents the expected return. The
intercept is the riskfree rate available for the market, while the slope is the market risk premium (rm rf)
Beta ()
Expected Return (%)
Market
portfolio
Risk free rate
Security market line
1.0
Slope = (rm  rf)
Risk, return and opportunity cost of capital
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CAPM is a simple but powerful model. Moreover it takes into account the basic principles of portfolio
selection:
1. Efficient portfolios (Maximize expected return subject to risk)
2. Highest ratio of risk premium to standard deviation is a combination of the market portfolio and
the riskfree asset
3.
Individual stocks should be selected based on their contribution to portfolio risk
4. Beta measures the marginal contribution of a stock to the risk of the market portfolio
CAPM theory predicts that all assets should be priced such that they fit along the security market line one
way or the other. If a stock is priced such that it offers a higher return than what is predicted by CAPM,
investors will rush to buy the stock. The increased demand will be reflected in a higher stock price and
subsequently in lower return. This will occur until the stock fits on the security market line. Similarly, if a
stock is priced such that it offers a lower return than the return implied by CAPM, investor would hesitate
to buy the stock. This will provide a negative impact on the stock price and increase the return until it
equals the expected value from CAPM.
5.7 Alternative asset pricing models
5.7.1 Arbitrage pricing theory
Arbitrage pricing theory (APT) assumes that the return on a stock depends partly on macroeconomic
factors and partly on noise, which are company specific events. Thus, under APT the expected stock
return depends on an unspecified number of macroeconomic factors plus noise:
(33)
noise
r
b
r
b
r
b
a
n
factor
n
factor
factor
2
2
1
1
return
Expected
Where b1, b2,…,bn is the sensitivity to each of the factors. As such the theory does not specify what the
factors are except for the notion of pervasive macroeconomic conditions. Examples of factors that might
be included are return on the market portfolio, an interest rate factor, GDP, exchange rates, oil prices, etc.
Similarly, the expected risk premium on each stock depends on the sensitivity to each factor (b1, b2,…,bn)
and the expected risk premium associated with the factors:
(34)
)
(
)
(
)
(
premium
risk
Expected
2
2
1
1
f
n
factor
n
f
factor
f
factor
r
r
b
r
r
b
r
r
b
In the special case where the expected risk premium is proportional only to the portfolio's market beta,
APT and CAPM are essentially identical.
Risk, return and opportunity cost of capital
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APT theory has two central statements:
1. A diversified portfolio designed to eliminate the macroeconomic risk (i.e. have zero sensitivity to
each factor) is essentially riskfree and will therefore be priced such that it offers the riskfree rate
as interest.
2. A diversified portfolio designed to be exposed to e.g. factor 1, will offer a risk premium that
varies in proportion to the portfolio's sensitivity to factor 1.
5.7.2 Consumption beta
If investors are concerned about an investment's impact on future consumption rather than wealth, a
security's risk is related to its sensitivity to changes in the investor's consumption rather than wealth. In
this case the expected return is a function of the stock's consumption beta rather than its market beta.
Thus, under the consumption CAPM the most important risks to investors are those the might cutback
future consumption.
5.7.3 ThreeFactor Model
The three factor model is a variation of the arbitrage pricing theory that explicitly states that the risk
premium on securities depends on three common risk factors: a market factor, a size factor, and a bookto
market factor:
(35)
)
(
)
(
)
(
premium
risk
Expected
cot
market
to
book
market
to
book
factor
size
size
r
fa
market
market
r
b
r
b
r
b
Where the three factors are measured in the following way:
 Market factor is the return on market portfolio minus the riskfree rate

Size factor is the return on smallfirm stocks minus the return on largefirm stocks (small minus
big)
 Booktomarket factor is measured by the return on high booktomarket value stocks minus the
return on low bookvalue stocks (high minus low)
As the three factor model was suggested by Fama and French, the model is commonly known as the
FamaFrench threefactor model.
Risk, return and opportunity cost of capital
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6. Capital budgeting
The firms cost of capital is equal to the expected return on a portfolio of all the company’s existing
securities. In absence of corporate taxation the company cost of capital is a weighted average of the
expected return on debt and equity:
(36)
equity
debt
r
equity
debt
equity
r
equity
debt
debt
assets
r
capital
of
cost
Company
The firm's cost of capital can be used as the discount rate for the averagerisk of the firm’s projects.
Cost of capital in practice
Cost of capital is defined as the weighted average of the expected return on debt and
equity
equity
debt
r
equity
debt
equity
r
equity
debt
debt
assets
r
capital
of
cost
Company
To estimate company cost of capital involves four steps:
1. Determine cost of debt

Interest rate for bank loans

Yield to maturity for bonds
2. Determine cost of equity

Find beta on the stock and determine the expected return using
CAPM:
requity = rrisk free + equity ( rmarket  rrisk free )

Beta can be estimated by plotting the return on the stock against the
return on the market, and, fit a regression line to through the points.
The slope on this line is the estimate of beta.
3. Find the debt and equity ratios

Debt and equity ratios should be calculated by using market value
(rather than book value) of debt and equity.
4.
Insert into the weighted average cost of capital formula
Capital budgeting
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6.1 Cost of capital with preferred stocks
Some firm has issued preferred stocks. In this case the required return on the preferred stocks should be
included in the company's cost of capital.
(37)
preferred
common
debt
r
value
firm
equity
preferred
r
value
firm
equity
common
r
value
firm
debt
capital
of
cost
Company
Where firm value equals the sum of the market value of debt, common, and preferred stocks.
The cost of preferred stocks can be calculated by realising that a preferred stock promises to pay a fixed
dividend forever. Hence, the market value of a preferred share is equal to the present value of a perpetuity
paying the constant dividend:
r
DIV
stocks
preferred
of
Price
Capital budgeting
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Solving for r yi